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The Impact of Student and Teacher Absenteeism on Student Performance at The

The Impact of Student and Teacher Absenteeism on Student Performance at The

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Published by Francis Abulude
ABSTRACT
Over recent decades there has been a massive effort by developing countries to put their children in school.
Educational attainment, especially basic education, is perceived as one of the main vehicles for spurring
economic growth and improving living standards in developing countries. However educational attainment in
the developing countries is at a standstill because of certain factors of which absenteeism in school is also a
contributor. Research tells us that when a teacher is absent from the classroom, student learning is disrupted.
Also it is known that students absenteeism affect the performance of the student in exams. An exploratory
research was conducted in Kumasi sub metro to find out whether student and teacher absenteeism affect the
performance of students in BECE. The major steps involved were the gathering of data from schools in Kumasi
Sub Metro District, concerning the students and teachers’ attendance and the performance of the students in the
Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE). A regression analysis was performed on the data of student,
teacher absenteeism rates and the performance of the students in the BECE results. The analysis indicated that
student absenteeism is of no significance to the performance of students in BECE. The result also indicated that
teacher absenteeism is of great impact on the performance of the students in BECE .The model below was
therefore used to predict the mean mark of a student for the 2008/2009 academic year:

Mean score of student = 442.552-195.098log (teacher absenteeism rate)

KEYWORDS: students’ performance, teacher absenteeism rate, students’ absenteeism, regression analysis,
Basic education

ABSTRACT
Over recent decades there has been a massive effort by developing countries to put their children in school.
Educational attainment, especially basic education, is perceived as one of the main vehicles for spurring
economic growth and improving living standards in developing countries. However educational attainment in
the developing countries is at a standstill because of certain factors of which absenteeism in school is also a
contributor. Research tells us that when a teacher is absent from the classroom, student learning is disrupted.
Also it is known that students absenteeism affect the performance of the student in exams. An exploratory
research was conducted in Kumasi sub metro to find out whether student and teacher absenteeism affect the
performance of students in BECE. The major steps involved were the gathering of data from schools in Kumasi
Sub Metro District, concerning the students and teachers’ attendance and the performance of the students in the
Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE). A regression analysis was performed on the data of student,
teacher absenteeism rates and the performance of the students in the BECE results. The analysis indicated that
student absenteeism is of no significance to the performance of students in BECE. The result also indicated that
teacher absenteeism is of great impact on the performance of the students in BECE .The model below was
therefore used to predict the mean mark of a student for the 2008/2009 academic year:

Mean score of student = 442.552-195.098log (teacher absenteeism rate)

KEYWORDS: students’ performance, teacher absenteeism rate, students’ absenteeism, regression analysis,
Basic education

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Published by: Francis Abulude on Mar 03, 2013
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7
Continental J. Education Research 4 (1):7 - 17, 2011 ISSN: 2141 - 4181© Wilolud Journals, 2011http://www.wiloludjournal.com ` Printed in NigeriaTHE IMPACT OF STUDENT AND TEACHER ABSENTEEISM ON STUDENT PERFORMANCE AT THEJUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL: THE CASE OF THE KUMASI-METRO SCHOOL DISTRICTW. Obeng-Denteh, E. Asiamah Yeboah, Charles Sam, J. Esi MonkahDepartment of Mathematics, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, GhanaABSTRACTOver recent decades there has been a massive effort by developing countries to put their children in school.Educational attainment, especially basic education, is perceived as one of the main vehicles for spurringeconomic growth and improving living standards in developing countries. However educational attainment inthe developing countries is at a standstill because of certain factors of which absenteeism in school is also acontributor. Research tells us that when a teacher is absent from the classroom, student learning is disrupted.Also it is known that students absenteeism affect the performance of the student in exams. An exploratoryresearch was conducted in Kumasi sub metro to find out whether student and teacher absenteeism affect theperformance of students in BECE. The major steps involved were the gathering of data from schools in KumasiSub Metro District, concerning the students and teachers’ attendance and the performance of the students in theBasic Education Certificate Examination (BECE). A regression analysis was performed on the data of student,teacher absenteeism rates and the performance of the students in the BECE results. The analysis indicated thatstudent absenteeism is of no significance to the performance of students in BECE. The result also indicated thatteacher absenteeism is of great impact on the performance of the students in BECE .The model below wastherefore used to predict the mean mark of a student for the 2008/2009 academic year:Mean score of student = 442.552-195.098log (teacher absenteeism rate)KEYWORDS: students’ performance, teacher absenteeism rate, students’ absenteeism, regression analysis,Basic educationINTRODUCTIONAccess to education in a country is seen both as a fundamental human right and an essential element in the nationaldevelopment strategy to promote growth and productive adult life.“I know no safe depository of the ultimate powers of the society but the people themselves; and if we think themnot enlightened enough to exercise their control with a wholesome discretion, the remedy is not to take it from thembut to inform their discretion (Samaha, 2006).” Thomas Jefferson made this statement to illustrate that citizens of our country are called upon to reach conclusions and make decisions on important matters and having a goodeducation makes them able to make informed decisions on important issue (Finlayson, 2009). This promise meansthat all children by virtue of their own efforts, completely guided, can hope to attain the mature and informed judgment needed to secure gainful employment, and to manage their own lives, thereby serving not only their owninterests but also the progress of society itself”The Government of Ghana has shown enormous commitment to the Achievement of “Education for All” (EFA)through its poverty reduction strategy has been indicated (Ghana.doc). A major achievement in the Ghanaianeducation system is that 18 months after the inception of the Education Strategic Plan (ESP), good progress has beenmade in terms of access across many areas of the sector. In particular, enrolment rates have risen in primary, JuniorHigh School (JSS) and post basic sub-sectors (Primary Education Sub-sector Report, 2004).
 
8
W. Obeng-Denteh
et al
.,: Continental J. Education Research 4 (1):7 - 17, 2011BACKGROUNDEffective basic education at the junior high school level is fundamental to achieving the literacy and numeracy levelsrequired for sustainable economic growth. The present junior high school education system is characterized byabsenteeism, poor teaching, inadequate management and insufficient community participation among others withthe result that children learn little and their performances at the BECE level is low. USAID has been helping tostrengthen the policy and institutional framework at the Ministry of Education, including the printing anddistribution of textbooks. The limited results achieved from these efforts have shown the need to focus attentionmore at the school and community level. The Government of Ghana issued a programme outlining a framework forproviding nine years of free compulsory education for the more than 2 million junior high-school-age children.Ghana has 12,130 primary schools and 5,450 junior high schools (Education in Ghana,Ghanaweb.com). Anyresidual activities under the Primary Education Project will be subsumed under this Strategic Objective (SO). Theexternal constraints are inefficient management at the ministry level, lack of experience in decentralization and poorphysical infrastructure. The purpose of this research is to explore and answer the question “How doesteacher/student absenteeism affect students’ performance in the Basic Education Certificate Examination?” It wasthus hypothesized,H
o
: Student/Teacher absenteeism is of no significance to the performance of the student.H
1
: At least Student/Teacher absenteeism is of significance to the performance of the student.OBJECTIVES1. Investigate the impact of student, teacher absenteeism on the performance of the student in the Basic EducationCertificate Examination (BECE) in Kumasi Sub-Metro District.2. Identify good practices that will help reduce teacher, student absenteeism in the district.3. Identify areas of weaknesses that may be contributing to a decrease in the performance of students in junior highschools in the district.SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY1. Improvement in the performance of students at school and in their final exams (BECE).2. Ensure financial sustainability of the government programme for basic education over longer term.3. Strengthen management of the basic education system through better planning, monitoring and evaluation by theMinistry of Education and Ghana Education Service at district levels, and by promoting active involvement of communities in the management of schools.4. Reduce absenteeism of teachers and students at the Junior High School level in the districtLIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY1.
 
It was hard for us to get data in certain schools because of poor record keeping.2.
 
Some schools were reluctant in providing us with the information needed.3.
 
The schools in Kumasi Sub-Metro District were not easily located.METHODOLOGYThe nature of the data to be collected on this study was in the form of primary research method to study student,teacher absenteeism in some schools in the Kumasi Sub-Metro District. As this was an exploratory study, it wasrestricted to some junior high schools selected from the Kumasi Sub-Metro District in the Ashanti Region of Ghana.The major steps involved were the gathering of data from the selected schools concerning the students and teachersattendance, the performance of the students in the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE).A regression analysis was performed on the data of student, teacher absenteeism rates and the performance of thestudents in the BECE results.
 
9
W. Obeng-Denteh
et al
.,: Continental J. Education Research 4 (1):7 - 17, 2011ABSENTEEISMIt is an expectation that an employee who is hired to perform a job attend work on a regular basis in order thatscheduled work assignments can be carried out by the most appropriate staff without disruption to other staff. Peoplewho have professional problems and cannot cope in an efficient way with these problems experience distress(Pithers and Fogarty, 1995). Absenteeism is defined as the persistent absence from work or some other place withoutgood reason. Absenteeism as a symptom refers to the reasons that a person may be absent from school (truancy) orwork (absenteeism). Sometimes people are too sick to come in, and in some cases, they are making excuses. Bothphysical and psychological disorders can stop a person from attending school or work. A study conducted by Romer(1993) found that class size affected absenteeism, that is, larger classes tend to have higher absenteeism than smallerclasses. In a study, a question of whether class attendance should be mandatory was raised (Glasure, 2001). Also,teachers absent themselves as a result of wanting to leave the profession they are engaged in, when it becomesunattractive to them (Lens and De Jesus,1999). Surveys indicate the following generalities in absenteeism:
 
The higher the rate of pay and the greater the length of service of the employee, the fewer the absences
 
As an organization grows, there is a tendency towards higher rates of absenteeism
 
Women are absent more frequently than men
 
Single employees are absent more frequently than married employees
 
Younger employees are absent more frequently than older employees
 
Older employees are absent for longer periods of time than younger employees
 
Unionized organizations have higher absenteeism rates than non-unionized organizationsTYPES OF ABSENTEEISM1. CULPABLE ABSENTEEISMCulpable absenteeism refers to lateness or absence problems for which the employee should be held responsiblebecause the problems are within the employee’s power to address and correct (Anonymous, 2004). For instance anemployee who is on sick leave even though he/she is not sick, and can be proven that the employee was not sick isguilty of culpable absenteeism.The four key types of culpable absenteeism are:1. Lateness / leave early;2. Failure to notify;3. Absences without leave; and4. Abuse of leave.2. NON-CULPABLE (INNOCENT) ABSENTEEISMInnocent absenteeism refers to the absence of employees due to illness or injury for reasons beyond the employees’control. Innocent absenteeism is not culpable which means that it is blameless.Innocent absenteeism is not subject to disciplinary action but is approached on the basis of identifying andunderstanding the medical needs of the employee and any restrictions as identified by the employees’ health carepractitioner.CAUSES OF ABSENTEEISMThe causes of absenteeism are many and include:
 
stress
 
lack of job satisfaction
 
boredom on the job
 
serious accidents and illness
 
low morale
 
poor working conditions
 
excessive workload
 
transportation problems
 
inadequate leadership and poor supervision
 
poor physical fitness

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