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The Effects of Gender Discrimination on Women in Kashim Ibrahim College Of

The Effects of Gender Discrimination on Women in Kashim Ibrahim College Of

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Published by Francis Abulude
ABSTRACT
The global gender discrimination against women in public and private organisations today dominated
the world affairs, raises alarm, attracts the attention of sociologists, managers and head of institutions
on how to confront the phenomenon is the concern of this study. A descriptive research method and
field survey were employed to this study using a sample size of sixty-six (66) respondents as study
population out of which thirty-three (33 (questionnaires each were allocated for both male and female
lecturer. A statistical method of simple frequency distribution and percentages were used to
comprehend the work. The findings of the study revealed that there was no or little gender
discrimination against women in area of recruitment and in administrative interactions within the
Kashim Ibrahim College of Education, Maiduguri. In an attempt to address the problem, the
researchers proposed some recommendations in order to reverse the situation.

KEYWORDS: EFFECTS, GENDER, DISCRIMINATION, WOMEN
ABSTRACT
The global gender discrimination against women in public and private organisations today dominated
the world affairs, raises alarm, attracts the attention of sociologists, managers and head of institutions
on how to confront the phenomenon is the concern of this study. A descriptive research method and
field survey were employed to this study using a sample size of sixty-six (66) respondents as study
population out of which thirty-three (33 (questionnaires each were allocated for both male and female
lecturer. A statistical method of simple frequency distribution and percentages were used to
comprehend the work. The findings of the study revealed that there was no or little gender
discrimination against women in area of recruitment and in administrative interactions within the
Kashim Ibrahim College of Education, Maiduguri. In an attempt to address the problem, the
researchers proposed some recommendations in order to reverse the situation.

KEYWORDS: EFFECTS, GENDER, DISCRIMINATION, WOMEN

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Published by: Francis Abulude on Mar 03, 2013
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11
Continental J. Education Research 4 (2): 11 - 21, 2011 ISSN: 2141 - 4181© Wilolud Journals, 2011http://www.wiloludjournal.com ` Printed in NigeriaTHE EFFECTS OF GENDER DISCRIMINATION ON WOMEN IN KASHIM IBRAHIM COLLEGE OFEDUCATION, (KICOE), MAIDUGURI, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA
1
Alimi Baba Gana and
2
Bukar Jamri
1
Department of Social Services (Social Works), Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State,
2
Department of Sociology, Bukar Abba Ibrahim University, Damaturu, Yobe State NigeriaABSTRACTThe global gender discrimination against women in public and private organisations today dominatedthe world affairs, raises alarm, attracts the attention of sociologists, managers and head of institutionson how to confront the phenomenon is the concern of this study. A descriptive research method andfield survey were employed to this study using a sample size of sixty-six (66) respondents as studypopulation out of which thirty-three (33 (questionnaires each were allocated for both male and femalelecturer. A statistical method of simple frequency distribution and percentages were used tocomprehend the work. The findings of the study revealed that there was no or little genderdiscrimination against women in area of recruitment and in administrative interactions within theKashim Ibrahim College of Education, Maiduguri. In an attempt to address the problem, theresearchers proposed some recommendations in order to reverse the situation.KEYWORDS: EFFECTS, GENDER, DISCRIMINATION, WOMENINTRODUCTIONWomen all over the world are often seen and regarded as second class citizens, lesser half of the men,machinery for producing children, mothers cum slaves, object of sexual satisfaction (Alimi 2008). Genderdiscrimination shows its face through varied expression. There are varying patterns of gender discrimination;these patterns cannot be attributed to natural variations: they are man-made structures with important self-perpetuating properties and as such, cannot be considered a necessary feature of the society, since no humancommunity is completely homogenous even in the simplest agrarian and primitive society. These are groupswhich tend to institutionalise gender inequality; this is seen in gender, class and status of our society. Otherscholars attributed gender inequality to the nature, but forgotten that duties and responsibilities of either sex areclearly spelt out without bias, particularly in the Islamic perspective. Similarly, Ogedengbe (1986) describedwomen best for the kitchen only. On the other hand, Perry (1985) described women as those who are mentally,physically, socially, politically and economically inferior to their male counterpart.Discrimination pervades every facet of our life. Everyone seems to be aware of it but ironically, it is itself discrimination against one’s self in that no one seems ready to address it properly, we at best pay lip services toit. For instance, the Constitution of every country across the globe granted a clause against discrimination. (Jaja,
et al
1998)Discrimination is already a popular subject that attracts the attention and interest of many people in the society,probably because it is being used negatively. According to Peil (1972) discrimination is an intolerant, unfair,irrational and unfavourable towards one another on grounds of sex, birth, market orientation, circumstances andsituations among others. Best (2006) thinks discrimination is synonymous with distinction, differentiation,percentage critique and related to phrase like “to separate the chaff from the wheat”.Gender discrimination and all gender issues have become areas of national concern in the past years, because of the need to redress social and gender inequalities. Since the Fourth Beijing World Conference on Women in1995, the government and people of Nigeria have renewed their efforts to advance the rights of women and howto protect them from all forms of discrimination and to help them achieve equality in all aspects of life in theirsocieties (Federal Ministry of Women Affairs Manual, 2009).
 
12
Alimi Baba Gana and Bukar Jamri: Continental J. Education Research 4 (2): 11 - 21, 2011Marginalisation of women in decision-making and participation in developmental activities has had a negativeeffect on national development. Gender bias and gender disparities have perpetuated exploitation of women forcenturies (Becker, 1971).According to Adeyemi, (2003) Gender discrimination and segregation in employment of organisations isprevalent in Nigeria, where sex rather than individual skills and qualifications play a large part in determiningtypes of jobs and chances of promotion. (FMWAN Manual, 2009) Gender segregation is the unequaldistribution of men and women on the occupational structure and sometimes called “Occupational Segregationby Sex”. Vertical segregation”, however describes the clustering of men at the top of occupational hierarchiesand women at the bottom. “Horizontal Segregation” describes the fact that, at the same occupational level (thatis within occupational classes or even occupations themselves) men and women have different job tasks(Marshal and Gordon, 1998).Studies reveal that Nigerian women face more challenges than the men in any working environment. Despiteconstitution guarantees of equality between the sexes, many spheres of human endeavour are greatly dominatedby men. For example, in the Ministry of Justice, there has been a very low representation of women. Therepresentation of women on the bench may be the major reason why it took forty-two (42) years to produce afemale Justice of the Supreme Court (Ojong, 2010).The glaring absence of women in national decision-making positions in Nigeria and their continued subjugationare to a large extent due to their relative inaccessibility to political and economic power (Ojong, 2010). Even inthe military and paramilitary agencies like the police, Immigration, Customs and academic institutions includingKashim Ibrahim College of Education (KICOE) and the likes you can see a partial discrimination in that womenare not evenly represented in sensitive positions.Investigations reveals that women who are described as weak, yet physically endowed and capable as men andhence productive are still being discriminated in employment. Therefore, this research is necessitated by thequest to understand the problem associated with gender discrimination, its nature and cause using KashimIbrahim College of Education, Maiduguri (KICOE).The existence of a “male managerial model” has perpetuated our societal norms and biased our expectations asto the level of job performance to be expected from a female manager or heads of institution. The belief ispervasive in that when women are compared to men, they are usually rated less capable for managementpositions. Consequently, many women, even if they are as qualified as their male colleagues, have been givenlower-status jobs. The fortifier is a contribution to the ingoing sensitization on gender discrimination and theproductivity of female heads in Nigeria institution.It is guarantee scholarly that equality among individual without discrimination is the cardinal objective of everymeaningful institution. Therefore, neutrality and equality practice is central to every organisational success forthat statement to be proved, the Kashim Ibrahim College of Education, Maiduguri must embrace the practice of gender equality and negate gender discrimination in order to achieve their set goals and objectives intended toestablish the institution. The subject of the equality in the KICOE bring us to questions like: which of theequality policies of recruitment consistent to the female employee or lecturer and to what extent the institutionmarginalize women, if and how these problem would be solved are the principal concern of the researchers.OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDYI.
 
To find out whether the recruitment policies of the Kashim Ibrahim College of Education isdiscriminated against women.II.
 
To find out whether the female lecturers were discriminated in all administrative capacity or notand evaluate whether female lecturers benefiting encouragement from husbands to further theireducation and develop potentials or not.III.
 
To suggests and recommends policies and strategies in order to arrest the abnormality and preventfuture occurrences.RESEARCH QUESTIONS1.
 
Is the recruitment policy of Kashim Ibrahim College of Education (KICOE), Maiduguri favour malethan female?
 
13
Alimi Baba Gana and Bukar Jamri: Continental J. Education Research 4 (2): 11 - 21, 20112.
 
Does husband encourage female lecturer always to further education and develop potentials?3.
 
Are female lecturer denied any entitlements or maltreated you because of your gender?REVIEW OF EMPIRICAL STUDY/LITERATURESIn African traditional society and indeed in most developing community or nations, women are made to retainand accept the saying of Alimi (2008) in respect of the caricature of a human burden amongst others while themen carry the day. Women cultivating or planting seed, harvest the crops, process and preserve the farmproduct into finished goods, fetch the water, hew the woods for cooking, make the pottery, the basket andclothing, yet women are made to care for children while their husbands and other adults male do very little orvirtually nothing (Ogedengbe 1986 in Alimi, 2008).The persistent discrimination against women worldwide led to the establishment of the gender, discriminationAct in 1975 by the United Nations. According to Arejuku (1980) the purpose of this was an attempt to provideequal opportunity for women and to deal with unfair discrimination against either sex in seeking for jobs,accommodation and obtaining financial facilities for themselves.Gender discrimination is said to occur if a group of men or women are restricted access to legitimate values,positions or rewards in a society for which they are ascribed status is not a relevant criterion. As genderdiscrimination in the work place proves to be a problem that is continuous, the question at hand should not be, if discrimination still exists, but rather what society should do to inhibit and hopefully put an end to this issue inthe future while this is not a simple matter that can be solved at once, there are ways to prevent it. Theproductivity and satisfaction of female staff would likely increase if they see that their needs are met (Ojong,2010).However, gender discrimination is a problem that needs to be understood not just by those in organisations butalso the society as a whole. Everyone needs to be aware of the negative effects of gender discrimination andmany often unnoticed ways that our culture enforces the issues through gender-related stereotypes, perceptionsand attitudes. We could work towards changing our belief, actions and finally end discrimination once and forall.Gender discrimination violates the objective notion of social injustice against a background: administrativeconsideration is particular deleterious form of choice; it is now the basis that has become the public concern.An important factor of such judgement about it nature is the perception of its effect (Becker, 1971 in Ojong,2010).When gender discrimination pervades the expression of free choice become especially pernicious. For instance,if a competent woman is deprived of employment on the basis of gender, she is not only deprived of a means of income but also means of development. Statistics reveals that women constitute more than two thirds of theworld’s population and are mentally and physically able and capable of being productive like their malecounterparts (Ojong, 2010).Thorough studies have shown proliferation of women’s population in all works of life, the inadequacies of statistics have made obvious the understatement of the degree of women participation in productivity.Although, women account for an over-whelming majority (70%) of over one billion people living in poverty,women suffer higher rates of under-employment and unemployment than men; the bottom line is that morewomen are simply swelling the number of the working poor (World of Work, 1996; CNN 2011, Euronews,2011).In analysing gender discrimination, it is important to be clear as to what is meant by gender discrimination andrecognise that it can be in different types and in different forms. A large number of administrative factors willexplain the difference in average female earning. The term statistical discrimination reflects an employmentdiscrimination of equally productive men and women employed in the same job (Chiplin and Sloane, 1976). Itis essential to distinguish between pre-entry and post entry discrimination. The former occurs before the workerenters the labour force and the most important type of it would appear to be difference in educationalqualification and opportunities. The latter is practiced within occupations, in effect the two are interrelated, andpre-entry discriminations may be necessary though not sufficient conditions for entry discrimination (Chiplinand Sloane, 1976).

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