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27. Infrastructure Irrigation, Seeds, Fertiliser, Power (Acharne)

27. Infrastructure Irrigation, Seeds, Fertiliser, Power (Acharne)

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Published by Sanjeev Kumar
Unconventional Topics of UPSC's Geography Main's Syllabus prepared by Geography 4 IAS group.
Unconventional Topics of UPSC's Geography Main's Syllabus prepared by Geography 4 IAS group.

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Published by: Sanjeev Kumar on Mar 03, 2013
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01/29/2014

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Irrigation
1.
 
Definition
The process of supplying water to crops by artificial means such as canals, well, tube-wells, tanks,etc. from the sources of water such as rivers, tanks, ponds or underground water is called Irrigation.
2.
 
Need / Importance
 
Variability of rainfall
 
Agriculture & allied activities constitutes about 15% of the GDP
 
Increased use of HYV seeds
 
Increasing Population
 –
therefore production needs to be increased
 
Present Crisis & increasing Variability in Rainfall
 –
aggravate the situation
3.
 
Sources of Irrigation
Sources depend upon
 –
topography, soils, rainfall, availability of surface or ground water, nature of rivers, requirements of crops, etc.
 
Well & Tube-Well
Locations
 –
 
alluvial formations
 –
 
Punjab, Haryana, W’n Rajasthan, Gujarat, MP
 
 
Tank Irrigation
Locations
 –
peninsular India
 
Canal
Locations
 
 –
mainly in UP, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan & Bihar, widespread
 
Diversion weirs & small irrigation
 
4.
 
Method of Irrigation
1.
 
Drip / Trickle irrigation
 –
water is supplied either onto the soilsurface or directly onto the root zone2.
 
Sprinkler Irrigation
 –
used for recreation, as a cooling system, or tokeep down the amount of airborne dust.3.
 
Flood Irrigation
 –
Might be in case of high salt content in fields4.
 
Bi-wall irrigation
 –
not the modern method
Seeds
1.
 
Significance
 
Increase in production & productivity from marginal lands
 –
decrease regional disparity
 
Inc Production (Green Revolution)
 
Optimally utilize land & water resource
 
Inc. in gross-cropped area
2.
 
Characteristics of a Good Seed
 
High productivity
 
Resistance to disease & pests
 
Low photo-respiration
 –
less maturity period, less green element
less ht
 
High photosynthetic ability
3.
 
HYV
 
Genetically engineered crops in which some of the qualities of seed are concentrated
 
Highly responsive to inputs like fertilizer, irrigation, etc
 
Greatest Impact for Rice / Wheat in the areas where Water Management is feasible
 
Resistance to disease & pests
 
Comparatively costly
4.
 
Limitations of HYV
 
Inter & Intra crop disparities (because farmers are not that educated)
 
Loss of biodiversity
 
Sensitive to physical environment
 
Monoculture leads to epidemic
leads to excessive use of pesticides & weedicides
 
Inputs are costly
 –
irrigation & fertilizers, etc
 
Responsible for Regional Disparities
5.
 
Stages of Seed Development 
 
3 types of seeds
 –
Breeder, Foundation & Certified Seeds
6.
 
Problems
 
Research
 
Demand-Supply gap
 –
low Pvt sector participation, PDS inadequate
 
 
Acreage coverage of HYV is low
Fertilizers
1.
 
Importance
 
Increase productivity
 
Help in optimally utilizing our vast land resources
2.
 
Nutrient Deficiency
 
Alluvial
 
 –
N & Humus
 
Black
 
 –
N, P
 
Red
 
 –
Organic & Plant material
 
Laterite
 
 –
N, P, K
 
Arid
 
 –
N
 
Peaty & Organic
 
 –
P, K
3.
 
Types
 
Manures: organic matter
 –
plant manures, animal manures, compost (
decomposedremnants of organic materials); if 
used more, doesn’t affect adversely
 
 
Night Soil includes Human excreta:
 
Sewage & Sludge: sugarcane, vegetable & fodder in sewage farms; problem
 –
bacterialinfection of vegetable
 
 
Chemical fertilizers: immediate result, easily produced, market based, less bulky; -ve
 –
 high water consumption, costly, MICRO nutrient
 
 
Bio-fertilizers: increases natural fertility, can be indigenously developed, aids sustainableagriculture; -ve
 –
not taken up very fast by plants.
 
4.
 
Fertilizer Consumption
Fertilizer-wise: Earlier the consumption of N was more, because of the
 –
availability of N, itscheap price & lack of awareness.But due to
 –
recent changes in subsidy policies & increase in awareness among farmers
 –
the
NPK ratio has improved from 7.0:1.7:1 (’00
-
01) to 4.6:2.0:1 (‘
08-09)Area-wise: fertilizer consumption is relatively in the Northern part of the country where greenrevolution has taken place. HYV seeds
 –
require more inputs
 –
leads to higher consumption.
5.
 
Problem
 
They increase the demand of water
 
Benefits reaching mainly to Big farmers
 
Excessive use affect soil health
 
Problem in Infrastructure
 –
supply problems

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