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Mosfet Thesis

Mosfet Thesis

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Published by: home2423 on Feb 26, 2009
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10/17/2011

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1
 
Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 History
 
Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Field-Effect-Transistor (MOSFET) is used in a vast manner in VLSI design for high speed performance, safe operating area, unipolarity and easinessto be used in parallel. For the study of MOSFET characteristics and operations variousmodels have been proposed. All these models have their own assumptions and predictions. Due to scaling of MOSFETs, it has become very significant to consider theeffect of generated traps in Si-SiO
2
 junction. The interface states although are not of significance in case of thicker gate oxides but study of devices with tunneling oxidethickness (~ 2 nm) shows that these almost negligible states have remarkable impact onthe drive current. As the oxide thickness is reduced these interface-trapped charges become significant gradually. In earlier times, gate oxide thickness was so large that this phenomenon was not noticeable, but introduction of nanotechnology puts a barrier indetermining the nature of the MOSFETs with ultra thin oxides. As a result, now a day itis a matter of importance to consider the interface states during MOS operation.
 
1.2 A glimpse of previous works on interface trapped charges
 
A theoretical treatment on the process of hot-electron emission from silicon into SiO
2
was carried out by Ning [1]. He considered avalanche and nonavalanche injectionmechanism to calculate emission probability of the carriers at Si-SiO
2
interface. Yambaeand Miura [2] observed experimentally the flat band voltage shift due to the generation of interface states because of electron trapping in the SiO
2
film. They suggested that the
 
2interface states, where electrons can be trapped, are generated due to the collisions of electrons at the Si-SiO
2
interface.Khosru and others [3] observed that holes are created by ionizing radiation that producesnew electronic states at the Si-SiO
2
interface resulting in the formation of interface traps.They also found a threshold voltage shift due to the trapping of carriers inside the SiO
2
layer.In a recent approach, Kuei-Shan Wen and others [4] showed that the generated electrontraps at the Si-SiO
2
interface enhance the degradation of MOSFET characteristics. Todetermine the interface trapped charges in a Si-SiO
2
interface Guido Goreseneken andothers [5] used the charge pumping method introduced by Brugler and Jespers [6] andrepresented a very keen analysis of energy distribution of interface trapped charges.
 
1.3 Outline of the report
 
In this report, we represented our work in a few chapters. These chapters are as follows:
 ·
Chapter 2:
In this chapter, the physics and operation of MOS devicesare studied in detail. Especially, the theory of MOS capacitor is presented. The dependency of MOS capacitance on frequency andapplied voltage is also showed. A brief description on the MOSFEToperation is discussed in the end.
 ·
Chapter 3:
The physical alpha-power law MOSFET model is explainedin detail in this chapter. The expressions of the model along withcompact mathematical analyses and plots of I
DS
 
vs.
V
GS
curves and I
DS
 
vs.
V
DS
curves for two different devices (3.5 nm oxide and 2.2 nm oxide)are presented. Discussing briefly about the plots, an outline of theoperation of the ultrathin oxide MOSFETs are understandable. In the end
 
3 portion of this chapter an analysis of the subthreshold slope of thedevices is presented.
 ·
Chapter 4:
This chapter deals with the development of the physicalalpha-power law MOSFET model. The incorporation of depletioncapacitance (C
d
) and interface trapped charge capacitance (C
it
) shows anamount of difference in the I
DS
 
vs.
V
GS
and I
DS
 
vs.
V
DS
curves for boththe devices. Respective plots in this purpose are included.
 ·
Chapter 5:
A detailed description on the location and properties of theinterface states in a MOS device is discussed here. Also, it includes aglimpse in the Si – SiO
2
interface.
 ·
Chapter 6:
This chapter deals with two types of determination processof interface trapped charges: 1) The Charge Pumping Method or CPMethod, 2) The Capacitance Voltage Method or CV Method. Later inthis chapter an analytical study and comparison between this twomethods is presented.

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