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86662981 Industrial Psychology

86662981 Industrial Psychology

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Published by Sandz Saini

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Published by: Sandz Saini on Mar 03, 2013
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NATURE. SCOPE AND BRANCHES OF PSYCHOLOGYDEFINITION
The Word ‘psychology’ is derived from Greek Words, ‘psyche (soul)’ and ‘logos(science)’ Thus literally it means the ‘science of the soul’ But to be a science, it must be able todemonstrate the phenomenon on which observation and experimental methods can be applied.But “soulor “mindor even “consciousnesscan never be demonstrated nor even beobserved. Thus the definition of psychology as science of “soul” or “Mind” or consciousnesshad to be changed as the science of “behaviour” How, as science of behaviour, “psychologydeals with responses to any and every kind of situation that life presents. Human psychology isconcerned chiefly with such activities as per receiving imagining, feeling, thinkingremembering, and acting. Psychology attempts to collects, organize describe and to somedegree explain and interpret the facts of experience and behaviour. “owing to the obvious factthat the environment is always changing and the human organism is always changing, andabsolute science of human behaviour is a impossibility. There are however, no absolutesciences; even physics, Chemistry and Mathematics are far from being exact. Science isrelative” Since Psychology is far from being an exact science, this is even more true of it. It isan emerging science.The ultimate aim of the psychologist is to make predictions about behaviour.Predictions help in controlling and developing behaviour.
METHODS :
Having agreed on aims of psychology, the psychologists must decide upon the ways of collecting date for prediction. The methods generally applied for the purpose are :1.
Methods of Observation:
(i) It may be Introspection or Subjective Method whenobservation is made by looking inward upon one’s own mind. The method has the merit of giving us firsthand information and knowledge of what goes on in our mind it has thedisadvantage of not knowing what is true of other minds.
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(ii)Extrospection : Observation may be made objective by looking out wards upon theexternal expressions of mind of other people / animals. This method helps in inferring themental processes of other people / animals from observation of their outward looks, gesture.
2.Experimental Method :
The experimental method of psychology teaches us to define,the real problem, relate it to known principles vary certain aspects in the conditions whileholding others constant, make hypotheses, collect and analyze data, and verify othehypotheses. The experimental method requires the we conduct experiments in ways that allowfor repetitions and for control. It requires that we under stand the variables involved.
LIMITATIONS
In the Laboratory it is relatively easy to design experiments so that they can be repeated.Some experiments can also be designed in industries easily and can be repeated. However, mayindustrial problems are so complex that repetition under exactly similar conditions often is not possible. This, of course does not mean that experimental methods should not be applied to theindustrial problems. It does mean that Industrial psychologists have to be aware of thelimitations.However, we may say that psychology is concerned with mind as well as its expressionin behaviour. It must combine all methods, together to get a fuller picture of the behaviour under study so that effective prediction, as far, as possible may be made. It must, there fore,combine introspection with objective observations and be supported by experimental methodwhere ever possible.
BRANCHES OF PSYCHOLOGY
Psychology has many branches now. Some major areas are :-1.
General Psychology
: Mainly deals with development of mental concept of human beings with emphasis of the changes that take place during different periods in the life span.2.
Physiological Psychology
:Mainly deals with the relation between mind and body chemicals and their effects on human behaviour.3.
Abnormal / Clinical Psychology
:Mainly concerned with the individual, and primarily in helping him become more adequately adjusted to his environment.
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4.
Animal Psychology
:Studies the behaviour of lower animals which contributes toknowledge of human beings.5.
Child Psychology of Development Psychology
: It studies the gradual development processes of the child from very conception.6.
Educational Psychology
: It is primarly concerned with the factor leading ot effectiveacquisition of knowledge on the part of the learner and effective teaching on the part of theteachers.7.
Social Psychology
: The main concern is the study of group behaviour. Behaviour of man in society, It applies the methods and techniques of psychology to the measurement andthe prediction of social phenomena, such as attitude formation, prejudice and group behaviour.8.
Industrial Psychology
: “The branch of applied psychology which concerns itself withthe application of psychological methods and results of problems arising in the industrial or economic field, inclusive of the selection and training of workers, methods and conditions of work etc”. A dictionary of psychology James Driver. Industrial psychology is a branch of  psychology. Psychology is the science of human mind and deals with human behaviour inwork environment.According to Harrell “Industrial psychology is the scientific study of people at work, Itincludes certain principles of understanding people and the application of certain techniques of dealing with people”It can be regarded as and aid to human resources management, because its object is tomake the work interesting and inspiring so that every worker puts forth his best. It is connectedwith changing the attitude of the worker in such a manner that he may find “leisure in hiswork” It seeks to give the worker the greatest amount ease, both physical and mental at his job.The worker feels tired and becomes less efficient not only on account of overwork, butalso because of mental uneasiness reflected through irritability, annoyance anxiety fear,resentment etc. “Remove these, increase interest, improve general ‘metal’ atmosphere, andcomplaints of overstrain will mostly vanish” says Myers.
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