Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
4559630 Els Gramer Kitap

4559630 Els Gramer Kitap

Ratings: (0)|Views: 65|Likes:
Published by sonmez

More info:

Published by: sonmez on Mar 03, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

07/07/2013

pdf

text

original

 
 
UNIT 1 THE ENGLISH VERB TENSESUNIT 3 THE PASSIVE
144
 
THE VERB "BE'.............................................................................7THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE........................................8USE OF THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE............................9THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE .................................................10USE OF THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE ...................................10THE SIMPLE PRESENT or THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS .........13NONPROGRESSIVE VERBS.........................................................14NONPROGRESSIVE or PROGRESSIVE ....................................15THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE.........................................................17USE OF THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE ............................................18CONFUSING VERBS....................................................................21EMPHATIC "DO"............................................................................26THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE ...............................................27USE OF THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE...................................27THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE.............................................32USE OF THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE .................................32THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE........................39USE OF THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS ..................39PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE or CONTINUOUS .........................40THE PAST PERFECT TENSE ...................................................46USE OF THE PAST PERFECT TENSEPRESENT PERFECT or PAST PERFECT ...................................47SIMPLE PAST and PAST PERFECT in TIME CLAUSES...............49THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE .............................55PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS or PAST CONTINUOUS .............56FUTURE TIME
(WILL/SHALL
or 
BE GOING TO) .......................
60USE OF THE FUTURE TENSES ..................................................60FUTURE TENSE in TIME CLAUSES ...........................................62THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE........................................64USE OF THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE ...........................64THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE .............................................66USE OF THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE....................................66THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE ....................67USE OF THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS .......................67TENSE AGREEMENT in TIME CLAUSES......................................69
TEST YOURSELF 1.......................................................................81
UNIT 2 MODALS and SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS
2-1 REQUESTS....................................................................................952-2 POLITE REQUESTS with the SUBJECT T ................................... 952-3 POLITE REQUESTS with the SUBJECT
"YOU 
1..................................................
962-4 POLITE REQUESTS with
"WOULD YOU MIND'............................
972-5 POLITE REQUESTS with IMPERATIVES....................................... 992-6 NECESSITY and PROHIBITION..................................................... 1002-7 NECESSITY: MUST;
HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO .............................
1002-8 PROHIBITION:
MUSTN'T ............................................................
1022-9 LACK OF NECESSITY IN THE PAST ........................................... 1032-10 ADVISABILITY .............................................................................. 1052-11
SHOULD, OUGHT TO, HAD BETTER ..........................................
1052-12
SHOULD NOT, OUGHT NOT TO, HAD BETTER NOT...................
1062-13
SHOULD/SHOULDN'T BE DOINGOUGHT TO/OUGHT NOT TO BE DOING......................................
1072-14
SHOULD/SHOULDN'T HAVE DONE OUGHT TO/OUGHT NOT TO HAVE DONE....................................
1072-15
SHOULD/SHOULDN'T HAVE BEEN DOINGOUGHT TO/OUGHT NOT TO HAVE BEEN DOING........................
1082-16 EXPECTATIONS:
BE TO
and
BE SUPPOSED TO ........................
1092-17 ABILITY:
CAN 
and BE
 ABLE TO ...................................................
1112-18 MAKING SUGGESTIONS ............................................................. 1152-19 EXPRESSING DEGREES OF CERTAINTY .................................. 1172-20 DEGREES OF CERTAINTY in PRESENT TIME ............................ 1172-21 PRESENT PROGRESSIVE FORMS OF MODALS ....................... 1182-22 DEGREES OF CERTAINTY in PAST TIME...................................... 1192-23 PAST PROGRESSIVE FORMS OF MODALS ............................... 1202-24 DEGREES OF CERTAINTY in FUTURE TIME ............................. 1212-25 ADVANCED NOTES ON MODALS................................................ 1222-26 PREFERENCE .............................................................................. 1252-27 HABITUAL PAST:
USED TO and WOULD......................................
128
TEST YOURSELF 2 ...................................................................... 131
FORMING THE PASSIVE ...................................................... 144POSITION OF TIME ADVERBIALS IN THE PASSIVE ................... 145USING
"BYPHRASE' ...................................................................
147USING PASSIVE IN INTERROGATES.........................................148INDIRECT OBJECTS AS PASSIVE SUBJECTS..............................152THE PASSIVE FORM OF MODALS...............................................155STATIVE PASSIVE..........................................................................156STATIVE PASSIVE WITH PREPOSITIONS ....................................157THE PASSIVE WITH "GET" ...........................................................1593-10
"BY PHRASE" 
OR ANOTHER PREPOSITION................................1613-11 IMPERSONAL PRONOUNS in the PASSIVE .................................1623-12 PASSIVE WITH GERUNDS-INFINITIVES ......................................1633-13
ITS SAID THAT.../HE IS SAID TO... ete...........................................
164
TEST YOURSELF 3......................................................................173
UNIT 4 "IF" and "WISH" CLAUSES ..........................
187
4-1
"If' 
CLAUSES.................................................................................1874-2 TYPE 1: TRUE IN THE PRESENT OR FUTURE ...........................1884-3 TYPE 1
"IF 
CLAUSE ile KULLANILAN TENSE'LER ....................1884-4 TYPE 2: UNTRUE IN THE PRESENT OR FUTURE ......................1904-5 TYPE 2
"If' 
CLAUSE ile KULLANILAN TENSE'LER......................1914-6 TYPE 3: UNTRUE IN THE PAST....................................................1934-7 TYPE 3 "IF
1
CLAUSE ile KULLANILAN TENSE'LER ...................1934-8 OTHER TENSE COMBINATIONS IN "/F CLAUSES ....................1964-9 OTHER CONDITIONALS ............................................................2024-10 "MIXED TIME" IF CLAUSES ........................................................2074-11 OMITTING
"IF'...............................................................................
2094-12 IMPLIED CONDITIONS .................................................................2114-13 WISH CLAUSES ........................................................................2134-14
 AS IF/AS THOUGH ......................................................................
218
TEST YOURSELF 4......................................................................221
UNIT 5 NOUN CLAUSES and REPORTED SPEECH234
NOUN CLAUSES WITH A QUESTION WORD ............................ 235NOUN CLAUSES WITH
"WHETHER OR NOT' ...........................
239NOUN CLAUSES WITH
"THAT' ...................................................
242THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN NOUN CLAUSES ...................................246NOUN CLAUSE AS OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION ..................248NOUN CLAUSES AS SUBJECT COMPLEMENT ..........................249TENSE RELATIONS IN NOUN CLAUSES.....................................249 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT NOUN CLAUSES ..............251QUESTION WORDS FOLLOWED by INFINITIVES........................2525-10 EXCLAMATIONS ....................................................................2535-11 SPECIAL EMPHASIS WITH
QUESTION 
WORDS + ON
EARTH /IN THE WORLD.................................................................................
2545-12 "-EVER" WORDS in NOUN CLAUSES ........................................255
TEST YOURSELF 5 (PART ONE) .................................................258
5-13 REPORTED SPEECH ...................................................................2705-14 REPORTING STATEMENTS ........................................................2705-15 REPORTING QUESTIONS ...........................................................2755-16 REPORTING IMPERATIVES ........................................................2775-17 REPORTED SPEECH (MIXED TYPES).........................................2795-18 AUXILIARY VERBS IN SHORT ANSWERS....................................2815-19
TOO and EITHER .........................................................................
2815-20 SO and
NEITHER/NOR ................................................................
2815-21 AUXILIARY VERBS in SHORT QUESTIONS..................................2845-22 "SO" and "WOT" REPRESENTING a THAT-CLAUSE.......................2855-23 QUESTION TAGS ..........................................................................287
TEST YOURSELF 5 (PART TWO) ..............................................291
UNIT 6 GERUNDS and INFINITIVES..............................303
6-1 GERUNDS ....................................................................................3036-2 GERUND AS SUBJECT OF A SENTENCE ,.........-........................3036-3 GERUND AS SUBJECT COMPLEMENT ....................................3046-4 GERUND AS DIRECT OBJECT.....................................................3056-5 GERUND AS THE OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION ......................306
1-1
1-2
1-31-41-51-61-7
1-81-9
1-10
1-111-12
1-131-14
1-15
1-161-17
1-181-191-201-211-221-231-241
4794
5-15-25-35-45-55-65-75-85-9
1
 
6-6 EXPRESSIONS + GERUND
.........................................................
3146-7 THE PERFECT GERUND
............................................................
3176-8 THE PASSIVE GERUND
................................................................
3176-9 INFINITIVES
..................................................................................
3196-10 INFINITIVE AS SUBJECT OF THE SENTENCE
...........................
3196-11 INFINITIVE AS SUBJECT COMPLEMENT
.....................................
3226-12 INFINITIVE AS DIRECT OBJECT
.................................................
3236-13 GERUND or INFINITIVE
................................................................
3276-14 INFINITIVE AFTER CERTAIN NOUNS
...........................................
3326-15 INFINITIVE AFTER CERTAIN ADJECTIVES
................................
3326-16 PASSIVE INFINITIVE AND PAST INFINITIVE
..............................
3346-17 INFINITIVE OF PURPOSE:
IN ORDER TO
..................................
3366-18 INFINITIVE WITH TOO AND ENOUGH
..........................................
3376-19 VERBS OF PERCEPTION
............................................................
3396-20 INFINITIVE WITHOUT"TO"AFTER"LET" AND"HELP"
...........
3416-21 CERTAIN VERBS + NOUN/PRONOUN + INFINITIVE
....................
3426-22 INFINITIVE AFTER QUESTION WORDS
.....................................
3436-23 CAUSATIVES
...............................................................................
343
TEST YOURSELF 6
......................................................................
348
UNIT 7 ADJECTIVES and ADVERBS.
7-1 ADJECTIVES
...............................................................................
3607-2 THE ORDER OF ADJECTIVES
...................................................
3627-3 PRESENT AND PAST PARTICIPLES AS ADJECTIVES
................
3637-4 ADVERBS
.....................................................................................
3677-5 FORMING ADVERBS WITH
-LY 
...................................................
3677-6 USE OF ADVERBS
......................................................................
3677-7 IRREGULAR ADVERBS
...............................................................
3687-8 POSITION OF ADVERBS IN A SENTENCE
...................................
3717-9 ADVERBS OF DEGREE
...............................................................
3727-10 SENTENCE ADVERBS
.................................................................
3827-11 FOCUSING ADVERBS
..................................................................
3847-12 ADJECTIVE AND ADVERB STRUCTURES
...................................
3857-13 TOO AND
ENOUGH 
...................................................................
3857-14 SO...
THAT, SUCH... THAT 
.........................................................
3867-15 COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
..............................
3907-16 COMPARISON WITH AS....
 AS/THE SAME.... AS
.......................
3967-17 SUPERLATIVE FORMS OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
..............
4027-18 'TO +
INFINITIVE' 
 AFTER ADJECTIVE STRUCTURES
..................
4067-19
LIKE, AS, SUCH AS
......................................................................
407
TEST YOURSELF 7
.....................................................................
411
UNIT 8 RELATIVE CLAUSES ...
8-1 DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
...................................................
4248-2 RELATIVE PRONOUNS AS SUBJECT OF THE CLAUSE
...............
4248-3 RELATIVE PRONOUNS AS THE OBJECT OF A VERB
....................
4268-4RELATIVE PRONOUNS AS THE OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION .. 4278-5 USING
"WHOSE" 
 AND "OF
WHICH' 
..............................................
 
4288-6 USING
"WHERE' 
..........................................................................
 
4298-7 USING
"WHEN' 
.............................................................................
 
4308-8 USING "WHY
1
 
................................................................................
4318-9 USING RELATIVE CLAUSES TO MODIFY PRONOUNS
.................
4338-10 NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
...........................................
4348-11 SUBJECT POSITION
.....................................................................
4358-12 OBJECT POSITION
......................................................................
4358-13 POSSESSIVE
...............................................................................
4358-14
"WHERE' 
IN NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
.......................
4368-15
"WHEN' 
IN NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
.........................
4388-16 EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY IN RELATIVE CLAUSES
...............
4388-17 USING
"WHICH' 
TO MODIFY A WHOLE SENTENCE
.....................
4398-18RELATIVE CLAUSE, NOUN CLAUSE OR ADVERBIAL CLAUSE.. 4408-19 REDUCTION OF RELATIVE CLAUSES
.........................................
4438-20 CLEFT SENTENCES
....................................................................
451
TEST YOURSELF 8
......................................................................
457
UNIT 9 NOUNS, PRONOUNS, ARTICLES andQUANTIFIERS.........................................
9-1NOUNS
..........................................................................................
4709-2COUNTABLE NOUNS
..................................................................
4709-3UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS
................................................................
4739-4COUNTABLE OR UNCOUNTABLE
..................................................
4749-5 POSSESSIVE NOUNS
...................................................................
4769-6 INDEFINITE ARTICLE:
 A/A
.........................................................
4789-7 DEFINITE ARTICLE: THE
..............................................................
4809-8 QUANTIFIERS
...............................................................................
4849-9
 ANY, MANY, MUCH, SOME, A LOT OF/LOTS OF, NO
....................
4849-10
FEW/A FEW, LITTLE/A LITTLE 
.....................................................
4879-11
MOST, SEVERAL, PLENTY OF, ENOUGH 
.....................................
4889-12
 ALL, WHOLE, NONE, HALF 
.........................................................
4899-13 BOTH,
EITHER, NEITHER 
............................................................
4929-14 QUANTIFIERS USED WITH SINGULAR NOUNS: ONE,
EACH, EVERY 
..............................................................................
4959-15 OTHER EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY
.......................................
4979-16 COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE WITH QUANTIFIERS
...........
4989-17 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
..............................................................
5009-18 REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS
..............................................................
5029-19 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
.....................................................
5049-20 BASIC SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
.........................................
5059-21 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT WITH EXPRESSIONS OFQUANTITY
....................................................................................
5059-22 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT WITH THERE
IS / THERE ARE ....
5Q69-23 COLLECTIVE NOUNS
..................................................................
5079-24 NOUNS THAT ARE ALWAYS PLURAL
...........................................
5079-25 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT WITH SOME IRREGULARITIES5079-26 PRONOUN AGREEMENT
.............................................................
5099-27 FORMS of "OTHER"
.....................................................................
510
TEST YOURSELF 9
......................................................................
516
UNIT 10 CONJUNCTIONS and TRANSITIONS......
10-1 COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
...............................................
52810-2 CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS
..................................................
53010-3 SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
............................................
53410-4 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF TIME
....................................................
53410-5 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES SHOWING CAUSE AND EFFECTRELATIONSHIPS
...........................................................................
53810-6 EXPRESSING PURPOSE
..............................................................
54510-7 CONCESSION AND CONTRAST
..................................................
54810-8 REDUCTION of ADVERBIAL CLAUSES to MODIFYINGPHRASES
......................................................................................
56110-9 CONTINUING THE SAME IDEA
....................................................
56610-10 INVERSION
...................................................................................
568
TEST YOURSELF 10
.....................................................................
575
UNIT 11 PREPOSITIONS
11-1 PREPOSITIONS WITH TIME EXPRESSIONS
.................................................................................................................................................
58811-2
 AT, ON, IN 
......................................................................................
58811-3 PREPOSITIONS USED WITH TIME EXPRESSIONS
......................
59211-4 PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE and MOVEMENT
................................
59411-5 PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS
....................................................
59811-6 NOUN + PREPOSITION
................................................................
59811-7 PREPOSITION + NOUN
.................................................................
60111-8 PREPOSITION + NOUN + PREPOSITION
.....................................
60811-9 ADJECTIVE + PREPOSITION
........................................................
60911-10 VERB + PREPOSITION
..................................................................
61011-11 VERB + OBJECT + PREPOSITION
................................................
61111-12 VERB + NOUN + PREPOSITION
.................................................
612
TEST YOURSELF 11 (PART ONE)
...............................................
621TEST YOURSELF 11 (PARTTWO)
...............................................
632
....
 
643
UNIT 12 PHRASAL VERBS..........................
12-1 PHRASAL VERBS: TRANSITIVE or INTRANSITIVE
.......................
64312-2 TRANSITIVE PHRASAL VERBS
....................................................
64312-3 INTRANSITIVE PHRASAL VERBS
.................................................
644
TEST YOURSELF 12
....................................................................
660
 APPENDIX 1 ADJECTIVE + PREPOSITION
............................................
671 APPENDIX
VERB + PREPOSITION
.....................................................
675 APPENDIX 3 VERB + OBJECT + PREPOSITION
...................................
676 APPENDIX 4 COMMON PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES
............................
677 APPENDIX 5 MINI PHRASAL VERB DICTIONARY
..................................
679
360
... 423
470528588
 
 
INTRODUCTION WORD ORDER IN ANENGLISH SENTENCE
İngilizce bir cümlede sözcük dizimi, Türkçe sözcük diziminden farklıdır. Türkçe bir cümledeyüklem cümlenin sonunda yer alır ve özneyi de içinde barındırır.
alışının.
BEN İNGİLİZCE
calışırım
Özne NesneYüklem Subject ObjectVerbYukarıdaki cümleyi,
"İngilizce çalışırım." 
 biçiminde de ifade edebiliriz ve ikinci cümlede özneyiaçık olarak göremediğimiz halde, öznenin 1. tekil şahıs olduğunu yüklemdeki -m takısındananlarız. Bu durum ingilizce için geçerli değildir. Yani ingilizce bir cümlede yüklem özneyi bellietmez. Bu yüzden, cümleye özne ile başlamak zorundayız. Formüle edilmiş olarak ingilizcecümle düzeni şöyledir:
Verb
Yüklem
Object
 Nesne
"İngilizce çalışırım." 
cümlesini İngilizce'de,
"J study English."
 biçiminde ifade edebiliriz.
1-1 THE VERB'BE"
Sözcükleri rastgele bir araya getirerek cümle kuramayız. Cümle kurabilmemiz için mutlaka bir fiile ihtiyacımız vardır.
"Be
fiili,
"come, go, study, eat, become" 
vb. gibi asıl fiilimiz olmadığızaman cümle kurmamızı sağlar. "Be" fiilinin şimdiki zaman ve geniş zaman biçimi aynıdır ve bu tense'lerle
"am,
is, are"
 biçiminde kullanılır.
Singular Subject Pronouns
I
am
You
are
He/She/It
is
Plural Subject Pronouns
We
are
You
are
They
are
I am always nervous before an exam,
(general)
I am nervous now, because I'm taking an exam in half an hour,
(present)
a)"Be"
fiilini asıl fiil olarak kullanabileceğimiz başlıca üç kalıp vardır:
a) be + nounb) be + adjectivec) be + prepositional phrase
I am a teacher.They
are
students.She i
 s
a Turk.Today
is
Tuesday.He is tall.The world
is
round.They
are
intelligent.It's very hot today.They
are
at home. Janeis from England. She isat the bus-stop. We
are
in the classroom.ELS Q 7
 
UNIT1
The English Verb Tenses