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CRS Report: China's Foreign Policy and "Soft Power" in South America, Asia, and Africa

CRS Report: China's Foreign Policy and "Soft Power" in South America, Asia, and Africa

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Published by Natch Greyes
A Study Prepared for the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations: April 2008.

Dear Mr. Chairman: In response to your request, I am submitting a comprehensive memorandum examining the People’s Republic of China’s (PRC’s) activities and ‘‘soft power’’ projection in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The work was prepared by members of CRS’s Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division. My understanding is that you may distribute the memorandum as a committee print.

The study addresses the questions you posed when you first asked us to prepare a lengthy study of the topic: How much is China really doing in these regions, and how much do we know about its motivations? What do these widespread PRC activities mean for the United States and for U.S. global influence: are the implications necessarily bad and therefore a demonstrable threat to U.S. interests across the board, or might the implications be benign or in some instances even positive for U.S. interests? How has this increasing engagement affected China’s own policies? Finally, what are the economic and political costs and benefits to China of such international engagement, and are they likely to be influences for greater pragmatism and nuance in PRC policies or serve instead to reinforce more hardline and nationalistic sentiments?

The study opens with an overview section discussing China’s presumed foreign policy goals, the attractions and limitations of China’s ‘‘soft power,’’ and the implications and options for the United States. The memorandum proceeds to an analysis of China’s relations with countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, the Southwest Pacific, Japan and South Korea, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa.
A Study Prepared for the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations: April 2008.

Dear Mr. Chairman: In response to your request, I am submitting a comprehensive memorandum examining the People’s Republic of China’s (PRC’s) activities and ‘‘soft power’’ projection in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The work was prepared by members of CRS’s Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division. My understanding is that you may distribute the memorandum as a committee print.

The study addresses the questions you posed when you first asked us to prepare a lengthy study of the topic: How much is China really doing in these regions, and how much do we know about its motivations? What do these widespread PRC activities mean for the United States and for U.S. global influence: are the implications necessarily bad and therefore a demonstrable threat to U.S. interests across the board, or might the implications be benign or in some instances even positive for U.S. interests? How has this increasing engagement affected China’s own policies? Finally, what are the economic and political costs and benefits to China of such international engagement, and are they likely to be influences for greater pragmatism and nuance in PRC policies or serve instead to reinforce more hardline and nationalistic sentiments?

The study opens with an overview section discussing China’s presumed foreign policy goals, the attractions and limitations of China’s ‘‘soft power,’’ and the implications and options for the United States. The memorandum proceeds to an analysis of China’s relations with countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, the Southwest Pacific, Japan and South Korea, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa.

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Published by: Natch Greyes on Feb 26, 2009
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05/10/2014

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U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON:

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Internet: bookstore.gpo.gov Phone: toll free (866) 512\u20131800; DC area (202) 512\u20131800
Fax: (202) 512\u20132104 Mail: Stop IDCC, Washington, DC 20402\u20130001

1
41\u2013927 PDF
COMMITTEE PRINT
"
!
110TH CONGRESS
2d Session
S. PRT.
2008
110\u201346

CHINA\u2019S FOREIGN POLICY AND
\u2018\u2018SOFT POWER\u2019\u2019 IN SOUTH AMERICA,
ASIA, AND AFRICA

A STUDY
PREPARED FOR THE
COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS
UNITED STATES SENATE
BY THE
CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
APRIL 2008
Printed for the use of the Committee on Foreign Relations
Available via World Wide Web: http://www.gpoaccess.gov/congress/
index.html
VerDate Aug 31 2005 12:43 May 05, 2008 Jkt000000 PO00000 Frm00001 Fmt 5012 Sfmt 5012 H:\DOCS\FRANK.TXT sfrela2 PsN: MIKEB
seneagle
COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS
JOSEPH R. BIDEN, JR., Delaware,Chairman

CHRISTOPHER J. DODD, Connecticut
JOHN F. KERRY, Massachusetts
RUSSELL D. FEINGOLD, Wisconsin
BARBARA BOXER, California
BILL NELSON, Florida
BARACK OBAMA, Illinois
ROBERT MENENDEZ, New Jersey
BENJAMIN L. CARDIN, Maryland
ROBERT P. CASEY, JR., Pennsylvania
JIM WEBB, Virginia

RICHARD G. LUGAR, Indiana
CHUCK HAGEL, Nebraska
NORM COLEMAN, Minnesota
BOB CORKER, Tennessee
GEORGE V. VOINOVICH, Ohio
LISA MURKOWSKI, Alaska
JIM DEMINT, South Carolina
JOHNNY ISAKSON, Georgia
DAVID VITTER, Louisiana
JOHN BARRASSO, Wyoming

ANTONYJ. BLINKEN,Staff Director
KENNETHA. MYERS, JR., Republican Staff Director
(II)
VerDate Aug 31 2005 12:43 May 05, 2008 Jkt000000 PO00000 Frm00002 Fmt 5904 Sfmt 5904 H:\DOCS\FRANK.TXT sfrela2 PsN: MIKEB
(iii)
CONTENTS
Page
CHINA\u2019S FOREIGN POLICY AND \u2018\u2018SOFT POWER\u2019\u2019
INSOUTHAMERICA, ASIA, ANDAFRICA
Letter of Submittal..................................................................................................

v Letter of Transmittal...............................................................................................vii China\u2019s \u2018\u2018Soft Power:\u2019\u2019 Overview and U.S. Policy Challenges...............................

1
Definitions of Soft Power.................................................................................
2
Presumed PRC Foreign Policy Goals..............................................................
4
Competitive Advantages of PRC \u2018\u2018Soft Power\u2019\u2019...............................................

9 Limitations on PRC \u2018\u2018Soft Power\u2019\u2019....................................................................10 Implications for U.S. Interests........................................................................12 Options..............................................................................................................

13
Latin America and the Caribbean..........................................................................16
Overview............................................................................................................
16
Diplomacy..........................................................................................................
16
Economic Ties...................................................................................................
20
Foreign Assistance............................................................................................
26
Implications for U.S. Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean...............28
The Southwest Pacific.............................................................................................32
Overview............................................................................................................
32
Diplomacy..........................................................................................................

33 Trade and Investment......................................................................................36 Foreign Aid.......................................................................................................37 Pacific Views Toward China............................................................................38 Implications for U.S. Policy in the Region.....................................................40

Japan and South Korea...........................................................................................42
Overview............................................................................................................
42
International Trade Flows...............................................................................

42 Investment, Financial, Aid, and Cultural Flows...........................................45 China\u2019s Relations With Japan.........................................................................51 China\u2019s Relations With South Korea..............................................................54 Regional Trade Arrangements.........................................................................

58
Implications for U.S. Policy in the Region.....................................................63
Central Asia.............................................................................................................
65
Overview............................................................................................................

65 Bilateral and Multilateral Diplomacy.............................................................66 Economic Ties...................................................................................................

71
Foreign Assistance............................................................................................

78 Implications for Central Asia..........................................................................79 Implications for U.S. Interests........................................................................83

Southeast Asia.........................................................................................................
88
Overview............................................................................................................
88
Diplomacy..........................................................................................................
89
VerDate Aug 31 2005 12:43 May 05, 2008 Jkt000000 PO00000 Frm00003 Fmt 5905 Sfmt 5905 H:\DOCS\FRANK.TXT sfrela2 PsN: MIKEB

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