All data is calculated via laboratory experiments. It is not to be construed or extrapolated data for field use. It is recommended that all products be field-tested.
The Science Behind Measuring Head Injury Criterion
Acceleration Based Head Injury Criterion (HIC(g))
Although the mechanism for brain axonal injury is internal shear and tensile forces, oftenproduced by high angular or rotational accelerations, such accelerations would be verydifficult to measure and interpret. However skull fractures are usually only produced bytranslational accelerations, therefore translational accelerations have been proposed for thebasis of an injury criterion. The severity or level of brain injury or skull fracture is acombination of both the acceleration level and the duration of that acceleration. Highaccelerations can be tolerated for very short durations (200g for 2 msec) while loweraccelerations for longer durations (80g for 200 msec) cannot. Results from biomechanicaltests have produced tolerance curves where the onset of brain injury / skull fracture isdefined by acceleration plotted against loading duration. The equation best fitting thetolerance curve is acceleration to the power 2.5 multiplied by the time. In order to predictthe onset of brain damage from the complex acceleration curve for the head, the HeadInjury Criterion was produced, requiring computer analysis for calculation.
Head Injury Criterion Equation With Abbreviations
Where t1 and t2 are the initial and final times (expressed in seconds) of the interval duringwhich the HIC attains a maximum value and a(t) is the resultant acceleration (expressed inG) measured at the head CG.The time duration (t1-t2) used in the calculation should be taken as the contact time for theimpact, however, this is often very difficult to ascertain in physical evaluations using crashtest dummies or headform simulators. In using HIC for assessing the potential of concussionthen a maximum time duration of 15 msec should be used, which was the maximum timeduration for which the original tolerance curve was developed. Longer contact timedurations can be used to predict skull fracture.The highest acceleration, independent of location or direction, should be used in the HeadInjury Criterion, which will therefore be the resultant acceleration measured at the headscentre of gravity.
The Head Injury Criterion (HIC) should be used for all impacts to the head, independent of impact type or location as it is the best predictor of brain concussion. Due to difficulties inassessing exactly the location and acceleration direction, it is proposed to use the sametolerance levels for any direction of impact.