A column-oriented DBMS is a database management system (DBMS) that stores its contentby column rather than by row.The goal of a columnar database is to efficiently write and read data to and from hard diskstorage in order to speed up the time it takes to return a query.
In a columnar database, all the column 1 values are physically together followed by all thecolumn 2 values, etc. The data is stored in record order, so the 100
entry for column 1 andthe 100th entry for column 2 belong to the same input record. This allows individual dataelements, such as student name for instance, to be accessed in columns as a group, ratherthan individually row-by-row.Here is an example of a simple database table with 4 columns and 3 rows.Student ID Last name First name CGPA1 Jannat Airin 3.82 Nasrin Shamima 3.73 Bijoy Salahuddin 3.6A relational database program must show its data as two-dimensional tables, of columnsand rows, but store it as one-dimensional strings.In a row-oriented database management system, the data would be stored like this:1,jannat,Airin,3.8;2,Nasrin,Shamima,3.7;3,Bijoy,Salahuddin,3.6;In a column-oriented database management system, the data would be stored like this:1,2,3;Jannat,Nasrin,Bijoy;Airin,Shamima,Salahuddin;3.8, 3.7, 3.6;This is a simplification. Partitioning, indexing, caching, views, OLAP cubes, and transactionalsystems such as write-ahead logging or multi-version concurrency control all dramaticallyaffect the physical organization. That said, online transaction processing (OLTP)-focusedRDBMS systems are more row-oriented, while online analytical processing (OLAP)-focusedsystems are a balance of row-oriented and column-oriented.