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Introduction
Conventions Used in This Book
Foolish Assumptions
How This Book Is Organized
Part I: Lining Up the Basics of Linear Algebra
Part II: Relating Vectors and Linear Transformations
Part III: Evaluating Determinants
Part IV: Involving Vector Spaces
Part V: The Part of Tens
Icons Used in This Book
Where to Go from Here
Chapter 1
Solving Systems of Equations in Every Which Way but Loose
Matchmaking by Arranging Data in Matrices
Valuating Vector Spaces
Determining Values with Determinants
Zeroing In on Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
Chapter 2
Describing Vectors in the Plane
Homing in on vectors in the coordinate plane
Managing a Vector’s Magnitude
Making it all right with the triangle inequality
Getting an inside scoop with the inner product
Making it right with angles
Getting Down and Dirty with Matrix Basics
Becoming familiar with matrix notation
Defining dimension
Putting Matrix Operations on the Schedule
Scaling the heights with scalar multiplication
Making matrix multiplication work
Putting Labels to the Types of Matrices
Identifying with identity matrices
Triangulating with triangular and diagonal matrices
Doubling it up with singular and non-singular matrices
Connecting It All with Matrix Algebra
Tackling the properties under multiplication
Distributing the wealth using matrix multiplication and addition
Transposing a matrix
Zeroing in on zero matrices
Establishing the properties of an invertible matrix
Investigating the Inverse of a Matrix
Quickly quelling the 2 × 2 inverse
Finding inverses using row reduction
Investigating Solutions for Systems
Recognizing the characteristics of having just one solution
Writing expressions for infinite solutions
Graphing systems of two or three equations
Dealing with Inconsistent Systems and No Solution
Solving Systems Algebraically
Starting with a system of two equations
Extending the procedure to more than two equations
Revisiting Systems of Equations Using Matrices
Instituting inverses to solve systems
Introducing augmented matrices
Writing vectors as sums of other vectors
Determining whether a vector belongs
Searching for patterns in linear combinations
Visualizing linear combinations of vectors
Describing the span of a set of vectors
Showing which vectors belong in a span
Working Through Matrix-Vector Products
Establishing a link with matrix products
Tying together systems of equations and the matrix equation
Confirming the Existence of a Solution or Solutions
Singling out a single solution
Making way for more than one solution
Getting nowhere because there’s no solution
Seeking Solutions of Homogeneous Systems
Formulating the form for a solution
Delving Into Linear Independence
Testing for dependence or independence
Characterizing linearly independent vector sets
Connecting Everything to Basis
Getting to first base with the basis of a vector space
Charting out the course for determining a basis
Extending basis to matrices and polynomials
Finding the dimension based on basis
Formulating Linear Transformations
Delineating linear transformation lingo
Recognizing when a transformation is a linear transformation
Proposing Properties of Linear Transformations
Summarizing the summing properties
Introducing transformation composition and some properties
Performing identity checks with identity transformations
Delving into the distributive property
Writing the Matrix of a Linear Transformation
Manufacturing a matrix to replace a rule
Translating, dilating, and contracting
Determining the Kernel and Range of a Linear Transformation
Keeping up with the kernel
Ranging out to find the range
Computing and Investigating Permutations
Counting on finding out how to count
Making a list and checking it twice
Involving Inversions in the Counting
Investigating inversions
Inviting even and odd inversions to the party
Evaluating the Determinants of 2 × 2 Matrices
Involving permutations in determining the determinant
Coping with cofactor expansion
Using Determinants with Area and Volume
Finding the areas of triangles
Pursuing parallelogram areas
Paying the piper with volumes of parallelepipeds
Transposing and Inverting Determinants
Determining the determinant of a transpose
Investigating the determinant of the inverse
Interchanging Rows or Columns
Zeroing In on Zero Determinants
Finding a row or column of zeros
Zeroing out equal rows or columns
Manipulating Matrices by Multiplying and Combining
Multiplying a row or column by a scalar
Taking on Upper or Lower Triangular Matrices
Tracking down determinants of triangular matrices
Cooking up a triangular matrix from scratch
Creating an upper triangular or lower triangular matrix
Determinants of Matrix Products
Inviting Inverses to the Party with Determined Determinants
Setting the scene for finding inverses
Introducing the adjoint of a matrix
Instigating steps for the inverse
Taking calculated steps with variable elements
Solving Systems Using Cramer’s Rule
Assigning the positions for Cramer’s rule
Applying Cramer’s rule
Recognizing and Dealing with a Nonanswer
Taking clues from algebraic and augmented matrix solutions
Cramming with Cramer for non-solutions
Making a Case for Calculators and Computer Programs
Calculating with a calculator
Computing with a computer
Delving into the Vector Space
Describing the Two Operations
Letting vector spaces grow with vector addition
Making vector multiplication meaningful
Looking for closure with vector operations
Ferreting out the failures to close
Singling Out the Specifics of Vector Space Properties
Changing the order with commutativity of vector addition
Regrouping with addition and scalar multiplication
Distributing the wealth of scalars over vectors
Zeroing in on the idea of a zero vector
Delighting in some final details
Investigating Properties Associated with Subspaces
Determining whether you have a subset
Getting spaced out with a subset being a vector space
Finding a Spanning Set for a Vector Space
Checking out a candidate for spanning
Putting polynomials into the spanning mix
Skewing the results with a skew-symmetric matrix
Defining and Using the Column Space
Connecting Null Space and Column Space
Going Geometric with Vector Spaces
Lining up with lines
Providing plain talk for planes
Creating Bases from Spanning Sets
Making the Right Moves with Orthogonal Bases
Creating an orthogonal basis
Using the orthogonal basis to write the linear combination
Making orthogonal orthonormal
Writing the Same Vector after Changing Bases
Illustrating eigenvectors with reflections and rotations
Solving for Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
Determining the eigenvalues of a 2 × 2 matrix
Getting in deep with a 3 × 3 matrix
Circling Around Special Circumstances
Transforming eigenvalues of a matrix transpose
Reciprocating with the eigenvalue reciprocal
Triangulating with triangular matrices
Powering up powers of matrices
Getting It Straight with Diagonalization
The Part of Tens
Eating Right
Controlling Traffic
Catching Up with Predator-Prey
Creating a Secret Message
Saving the Spotted Owl
Migrating Populations
Plotting Genetic Code
Distributing the Heat
Making Economical Plans
Playing Games with Matrices
Letting the Graph of Lines Solve a System of Equations
Making the Most of Matrices
Multiplying by a scalar
Multiplying two matrices together
Performing Row Operations
Switching rows
Adding the multiple of one row to another
Multiplying a row by a scalar
Creating an echelon form
Raising to Powers and Finding Inverses
Raising matrices to powers
Inviting inverses
Determining the Results of a Markov Chain
Looking for Mary’s Little λ
Coming to the End with ω
Glossary
Index
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Linear Algebra for Dummies

# Linear Algebra for Dummies

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Linear Algebra for Dummies
Linear Algebra for Dummies

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08/11/2013

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