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Future Mobile Network Architecture Challenges and Issues

Future Mobile Network Architecture Challenges and Issues

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Published by Muhammad Bilal
This paper appeared in JCICT 2011 China
This paper appeared in JCICT 2011 China

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Muhammad Bilal on Mar 04, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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The first Yellow Sea International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (YES-ICUC) 2011, August 2011Copyright
Future Mobile Network Architecture:Challenges and Issues
Muhammad Bilal, Moonsoo Kang
Dept. of Computer Eng., Chosun UniversityGwangju, 501-759 South Korea[e-mail: engr.mbilal@yahoo.com, mskang@chosun.ac.kr]*Corresponding author: Moonsoo Kang
In future mobile networks will form an integrated network environment, which will give individual based customized services. But this integration is facing many challenges. Recently Cognitive Networks has opened a new ground to present suitable architecture and mechanism for thesechallenges. The objective of this paper is to identify and discuss the challenges to the future mobilenetworks and to discuss some possible solutions to these challenges. Finally on the basis of discussion, simple flexible network architecture is proposed.
Cognitive networks, Network Architecture, Heterogeneous networks, Qos, network mangment.
1. Introduction
Different wireless standerds came in the market toenhance the data capacity of the networks and toprovide new services and applications; targetingdifferent service types and data rates. None of these standeds were designed to provide newservices and applications that are customized toindividual needs. Similarly, because of independent Radio Access Technologies (RATs)the radio spectrum is underutilized and operatorsare not getting the optimal net profit. In order tomeet the rising expectations, all wired and wirelessnetworks need to be integrated to share theresources and services. This convergenceintroduces the concept of ConvergedHeterogeneous Networks (CHN). Therefore weneed:Context aware and active mobile networks(MN) and Intelligent, reconfigurable, cognitiveand cooperative mobile terminal (MT). By usingcontext aware, active and cognitive MN and MT avery flexible networking environment can beestablished which can address the CHN issues. Inthe subsequent sections of this paper will discussthe important challenges to future networks andpropose an abstract architectur.
2. Challenges to Future MobileNetwork
The intigrated envoirnment of future wirelessnetworks facing different challenges.
Efficient utilization of network resources.
Technological independent network accessand seamless handover.This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF)Grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (no. 2011-0002405).
Maintaining certain level of applicationQoS.
Cooperative network management.
An intelligent billing policy.
2.1 Efficient utilization of network resources
The RF spectrum is underutilized in currentnetwork standards. Cognitive network canefficiently utilize the RF spectrum in anopportunistic way. In cognitive radio networks theuser are divided into two categories primary andsecondary users. Primary users are licensed userwho can use the licensed portion of RF spectrumwhile the secondary users can use unlicensed RFspectrum and also attempt to use the unusedlicensed part of the RF spectrum such that it doesnot affect the performance of primary users [1].MAC level scheduling is also required for optimumspectral utilization because availability of freechannels (spectrum holes) varies region to region[2].
Spectrum utilization can also be improved by, bypassing the base station if the communicatingMTs are near enough to directly communicate. AnInter BSS Direct Link Setup is proposed in [3], inwhich a protocol is defined for the directcommunication between stations across the BSS.This has improved the through put about 24 timesas compare to the conventional infrastructure.Moreover the efficiency of network will beimproved by saving the wastage of networresources due to reduction in network managementtraffic because CHN architecture offering theflexible, self aware, self monitoring and robustservices.
2.2 Technological independent network accessand seamless handover
To uniquely identify the MT, to hideheterogeneity of network and to maketechnological independent connection, the ene-to-end connection should be IP based connection.Similarly, an IP based handovermakes it possibleto continue internet session while moving acrossthe HN. IEEE 802.21 working group hasdeveloped a Media Independent Handover (MIH)frame work. But the frame work is incapable togive an acceptable seamless handover mechanism[4], there is a need of further clarification andsimplification of commands for seamlesshandovers to ensure inter-operability among thedifferent handover mechanism.
To overcome these limitations, differentcognitive network architecture projectshave been proposed, which areindependently developed. E
R,m@ANGEL, Sutton at el, CogNet,Thomas at el and SPIN are the mostfamous [11]. The most important feature isconsistency with TCP/IP protocol stacand only the CogNet project is consistentwith TCP/IP. The CogNet is fullydistributed at each layer and runs thecognitive modules independently processesin parallel to TCP/IP protocol stacks. Thesemodules are inter connected via cognitive bus and communicate with each other viacross layer architecture. The cognitive processes analyze the “observed events” of entire protocol stack stores spatiotemporalheterogeneous information in a localrepository. At node level the cognitive process can use this data in handoversdecision. The MT in [7] utilizes the spatio-temporal information to predict thehandover event before occurrence.
2.3 Maintaining certain level of application QoS
Categorization of applications according to theirQoS demand is the first step to ensure theapplication QoS. In [5] the applications arecategorized according to their QoS requirements.In cognitive CHN environment the end to end QoScondition is stronger than any other networkingenvironment [6]. In cognitive network all CNEgets the feedback from the cognitive process andthey have intelligent decision making abilitytherefore, in cognitive CHN environment the MTwill be capable of selecting the appropriatenetwork on the basis of QoS demand ostarting/running application. If the MT is enabledto maintain the QoS application it will cause thevertical handover if MT detects the more suitablenetwork for the running application. Afterselection of appropriate network MT should be
banned for reconfiguration for some interval of time. In this situation the MT can increase the databy using spectrum holes in available network.
2.4 Cooperative network management
In cognitive CHN all the networks indirectly affecteach other due to the cognitive users. The overallnetwork management in CHN environment willdepend upon mutual cooperation. The cooperationbetween different wireless networks can beachieved by the cognitive processes
The cognitiveprocesses give the awareness about the network condition through experience and observation andstored in local repositories of CNE. To utilize thisinformation a Cooperative Network Management(CNM) frame work is required. Some of theefforts have been carried out to give a generalizedCNM architecture for Radio ResourceManagement (RRM) in CHN [9].
2.4 An intelligent billing policy
Billing in CHN can be divided into two parts.
Primary user billing
 To prevent the mobile subscriber from sessiondisconnection, it is important to inform the MTabout zero balance condition and give someamount of time to switch over to 2
best availablenetwork. If mobile subscriber doesn’t have enoughbilling account to continue as a primary user of any other licensed network then call will bedropped. Billing information of all subscribednetworks will also be stored in the local repositoryand MT should update it after end of eachcalling/internet session.
2.5.2 Secondary user billing
To preserve the main advantage of opportunisticDSA the billing charge for secondary should bevery low and secondary user should charged if itaffects the performance of primary users. Thenetwork will informs the secondary user to releasethe spectrum hole via common channel or viasome centralized controlling entity. In [10] anauction based local billing policy is discussedwhich can be used for secondary user billing.
3. Future Network Architecture
Fig. 1
presents typical cognitive CHNenvironment in which MTs are connected to theirprimery network but also using spectral hole inother networks to increase data rate. The MTs canalso communicate directly if they can transmit andreceive directly.The Cognitive Basic Service Set(Cog-BSS) is an independent entity. It performsthe critical role to make sure that the secondaryusers do not affect the performance of primaryusers.
Fig. 1
Cognitive CHN environment
3.1 Mobile Terminal
To make the network side simpler and to preventthe network side form large scale, it is important tomake MT more flexible and powerful inprocessing. The MT should be ReconfigurableMobile Station having the capability to sense andselect the most appropriate, by reconfiguring thePHY-layer and tuning the parameters of all upperlayers in protocol stack [7]. Based on the work 
 byB.S. Manoj et al [8]
. The architecture of MT isshown in
Fig. 2
is using the distributed cognitivemodule approach presented in
[8]. Each layer hasits own cognitive module; all are inter connectedvia cross layer bus. The cognitive modules storethe
information in the allocatedmemory space of repository. The Logic Analyzer can request the required information from localrepository.

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