There are or can be many reasons why an individual chooses to meditate on, explore and/or write an essay. These range fromsatisfying personal needs to the more open inclination to sharing with the greater society with the view to contributing to societaladvancement and development by sharing information, if not knowledge
.This piece derives its ethos from the latter. In this context, it owes some apology if it does not meet all the rigorous high faluting theoreticalprofundity. Rather, its object is to contribute to mainstreaming socio-politico-cum-administrative adroitness and optimal praxis re-engineered andmonitored by societal timely awareness, enlightened, active engagement and participation based on correct, reliable, factual and wholesomeinformation.But why public policy in particular? Well, because public policies have always, are now and will continue to influence if not affect our selves and lives,families, communities, societies, sub-region, the region and the global village at large in all aspects of life and livelihood.By nature and to all intent and purposes, public policies influence our daily interactions to such a profound extent that with a closer look, we soonrealize that we need to be active stakeholders in all aspects of public policies, including their analysis. This is my contribution and in sharing with mybrethren, I propose to go as follows:. Brief Genesis of Policy Science.. Definition of Public Policy.. Understanding Public Policy.. Types of Public Policies.. An Applied Problem - Solving Model of the Policy Process.. Policy Implementation - Policy Design and the Choice of Policy Instrument.. The Realities of Policy Implementation.. Measures Policy Makers can take to improve Policy Design to facilitate Implementation.. Factors to be considered in selecting Policy Instrument Choice.. Policy Evaluation, Analysis and Policy Learning.. Types of Policy Evaluation.. Conclusion.This way, I very much hope that it will be easy to follow and back track (if need be).
Brief Genesis of Policy Science
Policy Science is a relatively recent discipline emerging in North America and Europe post World War II as students of political science searched fornew understanding of the relationships between governments and citizens.Before then, studies of political life tended to focus on the normative or moral dimensions of governments using western political philosophy andpolitical cybernetics to seek insights into the purpose, whys and wherefores of government and the activities governments need to or should undertakeif their citizenry were to attain the good life. These inquiries generated a rich corpus of literature and discussion of the nature of society, the role of the state, and the rights and responsibilities of citizens and governments alike.However, the increasing and obvious hiatus between prescriptive political theory and the political practice of modern states led many to search foralternative methods of examining politics, one of which would reconcile theory and praxis through empirical analysis of existing polities.In this context of change and reassessment, several new approaches appeared with some concentrating on the characteristics of national societies andcultures. Most of these approaches - behaviorism, elite studies, political cybernetics and studies of political culture have come and gone as scholarsexperimented with each before grasping its limitations and abandoning it to search for something better.However, one approach is still with us which concentrates on what governments actually do as opposed to what governments should or ought to do.This is an approach which focuses on public policies and public policy making, or as the originators would call it, policy science pioneered by HaroldLasswell and others in the United States and United Kingdom.The approach was expected to replace traditional political studies, integrating the study of political theory and political practice without falling into thetraps of formal legal studies. To the extent that policy sciences have developed a significant corpus of empirical and theoretical studies into theactivities of numerous governments and the globe, the early efforts of Lasswell and colleagues remain valid as well as valuable and continue to provide