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ENG 201 (Part-1) Prose

ENG 201 (Part-1) Prose

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Published by: murtazee on Feb 26, 2009
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05/10/2014

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 B.A/B.Sc. Hons-II (Prose) Eng-201
ENG 201PROSE
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
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1.Allegory of Wit and Learning
 Samuel Johnson5
2.Mother Tongue
 Amy Tan9
3.Individual and Group Identity
 Desmond Morris15
4.The Eatanswill
 
Election
Charles Dickens2
5.On Liberty
 John Stuart Mill33
6.Courtship Through the Ages
 James Thurber42
7.Class Struggles
 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels4
8.The Battle of the Ants
 Henry David Thoreau5
9.Words and Behaviour
 Aldous Huxley5
10.How To Say Nothing In 500 Words
 Paul Roberts6
11.War Prayer
 Mark Twain78
12.Wor
 Bertrand Russell81
13.How It Feels To Be Coloured Me
 Zora Neale Hurston8
14.A World Not Neatly Divided
 Amartya Sen91
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 B.A/B.Sc. Hons-II (Prose) Eng-201
INTRODUCTION
. . . facts must be manipulated; some must be brightened; others shaded; yet, in the process, they must never lose their integrity.(VIRGINIA WOOLF)
Prose writing includes biography, autobiography, and essays. Prose is rooted infact; however it does more than relate facts. Through the particular choice of facts, their arrangement, and interpretation, and through the skillful use of language, authors of prose communicate their own opinions and reveal their own personalities.An author of a work of PROSE usually writes for a very definite purpose andaudience. The author wants to communicate a particular opinion or thought; that is hisor her purpose. The opinion or thought may be packaged so that it informs readers,entertains them, or moves them to some action. The author may be writing for anaudience of experts or of casual readers. The author’s tone, or attitude toward thesubject, usually indicates the purpose and audience he or she had in mind in writing thework. In addition, the work’s title and overall style - the author’s choice and arrangementof words-may reveal the author’s purpose.The essay is a very flexible form and has been so ever since it originated withthe sixteenth-century French writer Montaigne. He used it as a means of exploringhimself and his ideas about human experience, and his essays were, in a sense, ameans of thinking on paper, of trying things out in writing. And he deliberatelyemphasized their tentative and informal quality by calling-them essays, a term hederived from the French verb essayer-to try. The term “essay” has since come to beused as a catch-all for non-fictional prose works of limited length. Essays may be longor short, factual or fictional, practical or playful. They may serve any purpose and takeany form that an essayist wants to tryout. The essay in its pure form uses words toestablish ideas that are addressed directly by the essayist to the reader. Thus, itsessential quality is persuasion. But the essay, is not confined to the form of straightforward persuasion; it may also be narrative, or dramatic, or poetic in form. Or an essay may involve a combination of the forms and the longer it is, the more likely. itwill be to combine the various possibilities of form in rich and complex ways. In its pureform the essay explicitly attempts to persuade us of something by means of an appealand argument. In a narrative essay the author becomes a narrator, a storyteller, whoreports directly to us on persons and events. A narrative essay sees its subject in timeand presents it in the form of history. A dramatic essay may take one of two possibleforms. It may take the form of a dialogue between two or more character, in which casethe author is present, if at all, only to perform the duties of a director; to set the scene
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 B.A/B.Sc. Hons-II (Prose) Eng-201
and identify the characters whose works and actions are to be witnessed by the reader,Or it may take the form of a monologue rather than of a dialogue. We use the term“monologue” here because the speaker in this kind of essay is a dramatic character rather than the author- or, we might say, the speaker is a character whom the author isimpersonating. An essay is poetic to the extent that its author or speaker appears to betalking to himself rather than to others. A poetic essay takes the form of meditation“overheard” by the reader. These definitions might seem to imply that only the pureform of the essay has persuasive purpose, but this is not the case. In one sense or another all essays have a persuasive purpose, for they are, after all, views-ways of looking at a thing rather than the thing itself. When essayists describe something, theyrecord what they see from their angle of vision, from their point of view in space andtime, because they cannot do otherwise. They can describe something only as theysee it, not as anyone else sees it, nor as it is. Yet, in choosing to describe something,they implicitly ask us to take their word for what it looks like. The same is true of essayists who narrate events or report information. They ask us to take their words for things. Persuasion, then, is at the heart of all essay, but some essayists acknowledgethis and proceed directly about their persuasive business, while others play down their persuasive intention, or use indirect means to attain their ends. Some essays areargumentative, while others are narrative, dramatic, or poetic.PROSE like anything else that you read, will give you more pleasure when youread it actively and attentively. In particular, an active reader will remember that a workof PROSE, while factual in nature, represents one author’s version of the truth. Whenyou actively look for clues about the author’s intentions in a work you will be better;
able
to weigh the particular version of the truth that the work presents. The followingreminders will help to make such judgments when your read PROSE. ,1. The title often indicates the author’s purpose, intended audience, and attitude.2. The writer of any form of nonfiction-biography, autobiography, or essays-usesvarious techniques, including the following:
Anecdotes to illustrate character traits and portray key events
Figurative language (similes and metaphors) and sensory language to communicateimportant ideas
Details, incidents, and other evidence as well as analogies to support opinions or clarify explanations.
A clear organization-such as chronological order, parallelism, or comparison andcontrast- to help communicate a message
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