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12. Population Explosion

12. Population Explosion

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Published by murtazee

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Published by: murtazee on Feb 26, 2009
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07/11/2013

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POPULATION EXPLOSIONOver population is a serious problem confronted by Pakistan since long and despitehectic efforts by the government, we could not achieve remarkable success to control our  population. Np doubt increase in population adds to our manpower. People are not only produces but also consumers. Besides labour provided in the shape of population, capitaland organization are also necessary factors of production. A few years back when moderntechnology was not introduced it was assumed that when more land and capital resourcesare available there is need of manpower. In modern age most of the manual work has been replaced by machines. Machine is an instrument that can do more work than we cando with our hands. So the functions of man in various sectors have been reduced to acertain extent. Now-a-days it is not wise to increase population in order to provide moreworkers. In case of 393The Study of Educationlarge population large, quantity of goods will be needed to feed, cloth and survive. If our  population growth is higher than our production rate we will suffer on each and everyfront. There will be no education no health no entertainment, no employment and so no prosperity. It is therefore, required to keep a good proportion between our resources and population growth.Unfortunately, Pakistan's population is increasing with a galloping rate. It was estimatedat around 124 million in 1994. The density per kilometre was 156 persons. According to1981 population censes it was 84 millions and the present population of the countryaccording to official sources is above 150 millions with a growth rate of 2 per annum.In the first half of previous century our population nearly doubled. It was 16.6 million in1901 and 32.5 million in 1947. In the following fifty years it is however estimated to befive times as large as at the time of independence in 1947. Our growth rate has noreduced to 2 percent while it was 3.2 percent in 1993. Morphologically, due to control of disease like malaria, small pox, cholera, tuberculoses and improved living condition,considerable fall in the crude death rate have occurred. Similarly the crude birth rate hasalso declined to a certain level.The population momentum exerts high pressure on economy and particularly its socialsectors. It compels the government to allocate more funds for providing items of dailyconsumption. In this way our import bill goes higher than our exports bill causing heavy budget deficit. It is not only a burden on our exchange but hampers the socio economicdevelopment of the country. There are many causes of over population. Let us analysethem one by one. Young age marriages is the first cause of increase in population. It is acustom in most of our areas that people get married their children in a very young age.Secondly people do not care to keep gap bet\veen the births of394
 
The Study of Educationchildren. They are unaware of the family planning methods. Effective awarenesscampaigns have not been launched to motivate people in this regard. Unemployment andmeager entertainment facilities have also contributed to increase in population. More over in many localities people think it a religious obligation to create children. All thesefactors lead to overpopulation, which in turn leave us illiterate, physically weak andeconomically poof and backward.The impact of overpopulation in health sectors is really formidable. Our limited resourcesdo not allow us to provide the same facilities as BHUs, RHCs, Maternity or health carecentres and hospitals in the same ratio as our population demands. Although thegovernment tried her level best to improve the health services in the country yetwidespread but unavoidable communicable diseases malnutrition among children andwomen reproductive ages, inadequate arrangement of waste disposal and access to portable water still persists in the country. About one third of deaths occur due toinfectious diseases. High fertility badly affects the health of infants, children and mother as well.In our orthodox and illiterate rural society women are not treated fairly. In most of thefamilies even the birth of a female child is considered a bad omen. They are treated asinferior being. Parents do not bother to give them proper education. The female literacyrate in most of the rural areas is quite negligible while the fact is that education brings outsocio economic changes in the country. An educated mother means an enlightened home.Educated people do not find it difficult to adjust and adopt the changes taking placearound them. It also enables us to accept innovative ideas. Further more, it changes theattitude and behaviour of the people. The non-significant response of our people to thefamily planning programme of the government is just because of the lack of education395The Study of Educationand awareness. In this context it can be said that population growth rate is inversely proportional to literacy rate.The growing population also exerts a high pressure on the existing housing stock in thecountry. Housing density has increased many folds than it was in 1947. It was5.5 percent housing unit in 1960, 6.7 in 1980 and 7 in 1987. More than half of thehousing units in Pakistan comprise only one room with 6 persons living per room. Thetoilet bath and the facility of access to potable water is available only to 13 percent interms of structure and facilities such as water, waste disposal, sanitation and electricityare deplorable in the rural areas. Most of the people live in mudded houses and slums.They are totally deprived of the basic life amenities.

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