Prof Amit Kumar 2FIT Group of Institutions
one of the survey sponsors who is familiar with therelationships between the data. The layout and structure of thequestionnairewill alsoimpact the rules for editing data. For example, sometimesrespondents are instructed to skip certain questions if thequestions do not apply to them or their situation. Thisspecification must be respected and incorporated into theediting rules.Lastly, other surveys relating to the same sort of variablesorcharacteristics are used in order to establish some of therules for editing data.
Data editing types
There are several types of data edits available: They include
look at one question field or cell at atime. They check to ensure the record identifiers,invalid characters, and values have been accountedfor; essential fields have been completed (e.g., noquantity field is left blank where a number isrequired); specified units of measure have beenproperly used; and the reporting time is within thespecified limits.
are similar to validity edits in that theylook at one field at a time. The purpose of this typeof edit is to ensure that the values, ratios andcalculations fall within the pre-established limits.
examine one full record at atime. These types of edits check for duplicatedrecords, making certain that a respondent or asurvey item has only been recorded once. Aduplication edit also checks to ensure that therespondent does not appear in the survey universemore than once, especially if there has been a namechange. Finally, it ensures that the data have beenentered into the system only once.
compare different answers fromthe same record to ensure that they are coherentwith one another. For example, if a person isdeclared to be in the 0 to 14 age group, but alsoclaims that he or she is retired, there is aconsistency problem between the two answers.Inter-field edits are another form of a consistencyedit. These edits verify that if a figure is reported inone section, a corresponding figure is reported inanother.
are used to compare surveyanswers in current and previous surveys. Forexample, any dramatic changes since the lastsurvey will be flagged. The ratios and calculationsare also compared, and any percentage variancethat falls outside the established limits will be notedand questioned.
look at the entire set of data. Thistype of edit is performed only after all other editshave been applied and the data have been corrected. The data are compiled and all extreme values,suspicious data andoutliersare rejected.
fall in the range of special-reporting arrangements; dynamic edits particular tothe survey; correct classification checks; changes tophysical addresses, locations and/or contacts; andlegibility edits (i.e., making sure the figures orsymbols are recognizable and easy to read).Data editing is influenced by the complexity of thequestionnaire. Complexity refers to the length, as well as thenumber of questions asked. It also includes the detail of questions and the range of subject matter that thequestionnaire may cover. In some cases, the terminology of a question can be very technical. For these types of surveys,special reporting arrangements and industry-specific editsmay occur.
TABULATION OF DATA-
The process of placing classified data into tabular form isknown as tabulation. A table is a symmetric arrangementof statistical data in rows and columns. Rows arehorizontal arrangements whereas columns are verticalarrangements. It may be simple, double or complexdepending upon the type of classification.
Types of Tabulation:(1) Simple Tabulation or One-way Tabulation:
When the data are tabulated to one characteristic, itis said to be simple tabulation or one-way tabulation.
Tabulation of data on population of worldclassified by one characteristic like Religion is example of simple tabulation.
(2) Double Tabulation or Two-way Tabulation:
When the data are tabulated according to twocharacteristics at a time. It is said to be double tabulationor two-way tabulation.
Tabulation of data on population of worldclassified by two characteristics like Religion and Sex isexample of double tabulation.
(3) Complex Tabulation:
When the data are tabulated according to manycharacteristics, it is said to be complex tabulation.
Tabulation of data on population of worldclassified by two characteristics like Religion, Sex andLiteracy etc…is example of complex tabulation.
PIE CHART FOR REPRESENTATION OF DATA-
) is acircularchartdivided
intosectors,illustrating proportion. In a pie chart, thearc
lengthof each sector (and consequently itscentral angleand
area), isproportionalto the quantity it represents. When
angles are measured with 1turnas unit then a number of percent is identified with the same number of centiturns. Together, the sectors create a full disk. It is named for itsresemblance to apiewhich has been sliced. The pie chart is perhaps the most widely used statisticalchart in the business world and the mass media. However, ithas been criticized, and some recommend avoiding it,