Right to individual development in international law
custom generally recognized with respect to nationality. However nationality in the sense of citizenship of a State must not be confused with nationality as meaning membership of certainnation in the sense of race, e.g. Englishmen, Scotsmen.In
case, the Permanent Court of International Justice observed that “it is an
elementary principle of international law that a State is entitled to protect its subjects, wheninjured by acts contrary to international law committed by another state, from whom they have been unable to obtain satisfaction through ordinary channels.
The right of protection extends tothe property of nationals as well. Further, if a national of a State is expelled from a foreignState, it becomes the duty of the former to receive back its nationals. The refusal to receive and
the expulsions of a State’s own nationals are incon
sistent with International as they may involve burden on other states which they are not bound to undertake. The International Covenant on
Civil and Political Rights lays down under article 12 Para 4 that ‘No one shall be arbitrarily
deprived of the right
to enter his own country’.
Thus, in dealing with any International legal problems involving an individual, it is alwaysessential to know his nationality, the legal bond which ties him personally to a given State for many purposes. It is therefore inconvenient for International law to permit the individuals tohave multiple nationalities or no nationality. It is a goal of International Law that eachindividual possesses a single nationality. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 provides under A
rticle 15, Para 1 that “everyone has the right to nationality.
PCIJ Series A, No.2 at p.12