Eurostat regional yearbook 2012
Focus on European cities
One crucial aspect o the Europe 2020 strategy is a greaterocus on sustainable and socially inclusive growth in citiesand urban areas, which are oen major centres o economicactivity as well as transport network hubs. As well as theirimportance or production, cities are also ocal points or theconsumption o energy and other materials, and are respon-sible or most greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, cit-ies and urban regions oen ace a range o social diculties,such as crime, poverty and social exclusion. Te Urban Auditassesses the current situation and monitors developmentsacross the cities o theEuropean Union (EU), as well as Nor-way, Switzerland, Croatia and urkey.
Main statistical fndings
Cities are the home o most workplaces, businesses and ter-tiary education institutions. Tis chapter presents a ew in-dicators reecting some o the challenges cities and urbanareas ace, like the age structure o the population, students intertiary education, unemployment and air pollution, as wellas documenting perceptions in relation to the ease o ndinga good job or diculties aced when paying bills at the end o the month. Te indicators presented are just a ew examples,as these are but a ew o the challenges.
Cities and urban areas
Based on an urban–rural typology (see Chapter 14), 40 % o the EU’s population lived in predominantly urban regions,and a urther 36 % in intermediate regions. Te two mostpopulous cities in the EU were London and Paris. Apart romthese two megapolises, the EU has a polycentric structureo large, medium and small cities: Map 12.1 illustrates thedistribution o city dwellers across a range o dierent-sizedcities in Europe. Each circle on the map represents an UrbanAudit city and the size o the circle reects the number o inhabitants in the core city.Te latest Urban Audit data set includes 323 cities in the EU,o which only our capital cities had more than 3 million in-habitants, namely London (United Kingdom), Paris (France),Berlin (Germany) and Madrid (Spain), and another two hadmore than 2 million inhabitants, namely Athina (Greece)and Roma (Italy). Another 20 cities, o which 11 were capitalcities, had a population o between 1 million and 2 millioninhabitants. Apart rom capital cities, the largest cities in theEU were Hamburg in Germany with 1.8 million inhabitantsand Barcelona in Spain with 1.6 million inhabitants, whilethere were three other large French cities with over 1 millioninhabitants (Lyon, Lille and Marseille), two more in Germany (München and Köln) and one each in Italy (Milano) and theUnited Kingdom (Birmingham).Tere were 36 cities with a population o between hal a mil-lion and 1 million inhabitants, including the ollowing cap-ital cities: Amsterdam (Netherlands), Rīga (Latvia), Vilnius(Lithuania) and København (Denmark). A urther 72 citieswere in the next tier, with populations ranging between aquarter o a million and hal a million, including Bratislava,allinn and Ljubljana, the capital cities o Slovakia, Estoniaand Slovenia. Te Urban Audit also provides results rom aurther 189 smaller EU cities with ewer than 250 000 inhab-itants. While the data set does not include every city in theEU, the capital cities o Lefosia (Cyprus), Valletta (Malta)and Luxembourg all gured in this nal category.Within each size category mentioned (more than 2 millioninhabitants, between 1 and 2 million, between hal a millionand one million, between a quarter and hal a million andless than a quarter o a million) the aggregated populationo all the cities covered by the Urban Audit was about thesame, between 22.7 million and 27.4 million or each cat-egory. Te entire population o the 323 Urban Audit citieswas 127.6 million persons: Urban Audit inormation or2008 is available or most o these.In Norway and Switzerland, the largest cities were Oslo with560 000 persons and Zürich with 377 000, and there were noother cities with more than 250 000 persons.Figure 12.1 analyses the capital cities in terms o their sizerelative to the national population. Valetta was the secondsmallest o all capital cities in the EU, but accounted or near-ly hal o the Maltese population (note that inormation onneighbouring localities has been added to the data or theadministrative city o Valetta in agreement with the nationalstatistical institute o Malta and the Directorate-General orRegional Policy). Five other capital cities accounted or morethan one quarter o their national population: they were Rīga,allinn, Lefosia, Dublin (Ireland) and Athina. Te largestcities in absolute terms, namely London and Paris, accountedor 12.5 % and 10.3 % o the population o the United King-dom and France respectively. In our Member States the capi-tal city had less than 5 % o the national population: this wasthe case in Roma, Warszawa (Poland), Berlin and Amsterdam.
12.2 shows two examples o how the age structurehas changed over time in a capital city and a Member Stateas a whole. Te example or Belgium and Bruxelles/Brus-sel shows how the developments have diverged: over time(moving rom the inner rings to the outer rings) there is agreater share o younger persons (aged less than 20) and o working age persons (aged 20 to 64) in the capital city and asmaller share o older persons (aged 65 and over); whereasin the Belgian population as a whole the opposite devel-opments can be observed or younger and older persons,