Plant tissue culture
Prepared By: Shree Krishna Adhikari, Bsc.Ag 7
semester. IAAS, Rampur Campus
B. PLANT TISSUE CULTURE:
The term ‗Plant Tissue Culture‘ broadly refers to the
cultivation of plants, seeds, plant partsetc. on nutrient media under aseptic conditions.Haberlandt (1854-1945) attempted to cultivate plant tissue culture cells
. He is regarded as thefather of plant tissue culture.
PLASTICITY AND TOTIPOTENCY
Two concepts, plasticity and totipotency, are central to understanding plant cell culture and regeneration.Plants, due to their sessile nature and long life span, have developed a greater ability to endure extremeconditions and predation than have animals. Many of the processes involved in plant growth anddevelopment adapt to environmental conditions. This plasticity (
ability of the plants to sustain adverseenvironment with their metabolism, growth and development
) allows plants to alter their metabolism,growth, and development to best suit their environment. Particularly important aspects of this adaptation,as far as plant tissue culture and regeneration are concerned, are the abilities to initiate cell division fromalmost any tissue of the plant and to regenerate lost organs or undergo different developmental pathwaysin response to particular stimuli. When plant cells and tissues are cultured
they generally exhibit avery high degree of plasticity, which allows one type of tissue or organ to be initiated from another type.In this way, whole plants can be subsequently regenerated. This regeneration of whole organisms dependsupon the concept that all plant cells can, given the correct stimuli, express the total genetic potential of theparent plant. This maintenance of genetic potential is called
.Cultured tissue must contain competent cells or cells capable of regaining competence (dedifferentiation).
e.g. an excised piece of differentiated tissue or organ (Explant) → dedifferentiation → callus(heterogenous) → redifferentiation (whole plant) = cellular totipotency.
Plant cell culture and regeneration do, in fact, provide the most compelling evidence for totipotency. Inpractical terms though, identifying the culture conditions and stimuli required to manifest this totipotencycan be extremely difficult and it is still a largely empirical process.1957 Skoog and Miller demonstrate
d that two hormones affect explants‘ differentiation:
Auxin: Stimulates root development
Cytokinin: Stimulates shoot development
• Generally, the ratio of these two hormones can determine plant development:
↑ Auxin ↓Cytokinin = Root development
↑ Cytokinin ↓Auxin = Shoot development