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Mill Utilitarianism

Mill Utilitarianism

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Published by zhengmingzhe
Classic work of Mill on moral.
Classic work of Mill on moral.

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Published by: zhengmingzhe on Feb 27, 2009
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10/17/2011

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UT
I
L
I
T
A
R
IANISM1861
 
ED
I
TOR
'SN
O
T
E4t
h
ed.
L
ondon:Longm
am
,Green,R
ea
de
r
,
a
nd
D
yer
,
1
8
71.Revis
e
dandre
-
printedfrom3rded.(London:Longmans,Green,ReaderandDyer,1867),2nded.(London:Longman,Green,Longman,Roberts,andGreen,1864),1sted.(London:Parker,Son,andBourn,1863),and
Fraser'sMagazine
,LXIV(Oct.,1861),391-406[Chaps.i-ii],
ibid
.(Nov.,1861),525-34[Chaps.iii-iv],
ibid
.(
D
ec.,1861),658-73[Chap.v].Thearticlesin
Fraser's
wereidenti-fiedas"byJo
h
nStuartMill."DescribedinJSM'sbibliographya
s
"
A
n
E
s
say
infiveChaptersentitled'Utilitarianism'publishedinthethreenumbersofFra
s
er'sMagazineforOctober,NovemberandDecember1861.Reprintedasaseparateworkearlyin1863."(MacMinn,93.)Forafurtheraccountoftheplaceo
f
theworkinrelationtotheotheressaysinthisvolume,seetheTextualIntroduction,
c
xxii---cxxviabo
v
e
.
Thefollowingtextiscollatedwiththoseo
f
the1st,2rid,and3rdeds.,andthatin
Fraser
'
s
.Inthefootnotedvarian
t
s,the4thed.isindicatedby"71";the3rdby"67";the2ndby"64
"
;the1stby"63";and
Fraser's
by"61
"
.TherearenocopiesofrelevanteditionsinSomervilleCollege.Inallversionsthetitleo
f
Chap.vbegins"Onthe...";theTablesofConte
n
ts,however,exceptfor63
,
give"Ofthe...."Here"On"isaccepted.
 
C
HAPTERI
Ge
n
eralRemarks
TH
E
REARE
ewc
i
rc
u
m
s
tancesamo
n
gtho
s
ewh
i
c
hm
ake
u
pthe
p
re
s
e
n
tco
n
di
-
tiono
f
humanknowledge,moreunlikewhatmighthavebeenexpected,ormoresignificanto
f
thebackwardstateinwhichspecula
ti
ononthemostim-portantsubjects
s
tilllingers,thantheli
t
tleprogressw
hic
h
h
a
s
bee
n
ma
d
einthedecisiono
f
thecontroversyrespectingthecriteriono
f
rightandwrong.Fromthedawno
f
philosophy,thequestionconcerningthe
summumbonum
,or,whatisthesamething,concerningthe
f
oundationo
f
morality,hasbeenaccountedthemainprobleminspeculativethought,hasoccupiedthemostgi
f
tedintellects,anddividedthemintosectsand
sch
ool
s
,carryingonavigorouswar
f
areagainstoneanother.Anda
f
termorethantwothousa
n
dyear
s
thesamediscussionscontinue,philosophersarestillrangedunderthesamecontendingbanners,andneithert
h
inkersnormankindatlargeseemnearertobeinguna
n
i
m
ousonthesub
j
ect,tha
n
w
h
entheyouthSocrate
s
listenedtotheoldProtagoras,andasserted(i
f
Plato'sdialoguebegroundedonarealconversa
ti
on)thetheoryo
f
utilitarianismagai
n
stthepopularmoralityofthe
s
o-calledsophist.Iti
s
truethatsimilarcon
f
usionanduncertainty,andinsomecasessimi-lardiscordance,existrespectingthefirstprincipleso
f
allthesciences,notexceptingthatwhichisdeemedthemo
s
tcertaino
f
them,mathema
ti
cs;with-outmuchimpairing,generallyindeedwithoutimpairingatall,thetnlst-wor
t
h
in
essoftheconclusionso
f
thosesciences.A
n
apparentanomaly,theexpla
n
ationo
f
whichis,thatthedetaileddoctrineso
f
asciencearenotusuallydeduced
f
rom,nordepend
f
ortheirevidenceupon,whatarecalleditsfir
s
tprinciples.Wereitnotso,therewouldbenosciencemoreprecarious,orwhoseconclusionsweremorei
n
suffi
c
ientlymadeout,thanalgebra;whichderive
snoneo
fitscertai
n
ty
f
romwhatarecommonlytaughtt
o
l
e
arnersa
s
i
t
s
elements,
s
incethese,aslaidd
o
wnbysomeofitsmostemine
n
tteachers,areas
f
ullo
ffic
ti
o
nsas
En
glishla
w,
an
d
o
fm
yst
e
riesastheol
o
gy
.
Th
e
t
r
uth
sw
hic
h
are
u
lti
ma
telyacceptedasthe
fi
rstprinciple
s
o
f
a
s
cie
n
ce,arereallythelas
t
result
sof
metap
hys
i
c
alanaly
s
is
,
p
r
a
c
tise
d
ontheele
m
entary
n
otio
ns
withwhichth
e
sci
e
ncei
sc
onversan
t
;an
d
thei
r
rel
a
ti
on
toth
es
ci
en
ceisn
ot
th
at
o
ffo
un
d
ati
on
stoa
n
edifice
,
b
u
t
of
rootsto
a
t
r
ee
,w
hic
hmay
per
f
ormth
e
i
r
o
ff
i
c
e
e
q
uallywe
l
l
tho
ugh
th
e
yb
e
nev
e
rdug
down
t
o
andex
p
o
se
dto

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