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Integration in Polar Coordinates by Abhishek Jaguessar

# Integration in Polar Coordinates by Abhishek Jaguessar

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Published by Abhishek Jaguessar
The actual term polar coordinates has been attributed to Gregorio Fontana ... this replicates integration in polar coordinates by adding a joint so that the 2 ...
The actual term polar coordinates has been attributed to Gregorio Fontana ... this replicates integration in polar coordinates by adding a joint so that the 2 ...

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Abhishek Jaguessar on Mar 05, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/06/2013

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INTEGRATION IN POLAR COORDINATES
One of the main reasons why we study polar coordinates is to help us to find the area of a regionthat cannot easily be integrated in terms of x. In this set of notes, I will show how to find the areaof the region using polar coordinates. Find the length of the curve using polar coordinates. Findthe surface area of the surface of revolution when a polar curve is revolved about an axis.
AREA IN THE PLANE

EXAMPLE 1:
Find the area bounded by the curve r = 2 - 2 sin
.
SOLUTION:
Here is the graph of this curve.This function is symmetric with respect to the y-axis, so I will let -
/2

/2 and multiply the area by 2.

EXAMPLE 2:
Find the area enclosed by the curve r
2
= a
2
sin
2

.
SOLUTION:
Here is the graph of this curve.Since the graph is symmetric with respect to the x-, y-axis and theorigin, I will take 4 times the area of a quarter of the graph. I willuse the upper right quarter, and for this quarter,
starts at 0 and endsat
/2. The equation for the upper circle is r = a sin
.
EXAMPLE 3:
Find the area of the region bounded by r = tan 2
and the rays
= 0and
=
/ 8.
SOLUTION:
The bounds for integration are provided to us in this problem.

starts at 0 and ends at
/ 8. So let us calculate the area.Recall that tan
2
2
+ 1 = sec
2
2
, so tan
2
2
= sec
2
2
- 1.Suppose I needed to find the area of the region enclosed by two polar curves, how couldthe area formula need to be modified? Do you remember how we found the area between two curves in calculus I? We always wrote the integrand as the outer curveminus the inner curve. We will approach the area of the region enclosed by two polar curves the same way.
AREA OF THE REGION 0
r
1
(
)
r
r
2
(
),

EXAMPLE 4:
Find the area of the region bounded by the graphs r = e
, 0

; r =
, 0

; the rays
= 0 and
=
.
SOLUTION:
Here is the graph of these curves.

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