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A History of Anatolia

A History of Anatolia

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Published by A. Rod Paolini
A brief history of Anatolia, the land that is now the country of Turkey, but which was the country of many empires including Hittite, Phrygian, Macedonian, Selucid, Roman, Byzantine, Ottoman, and Republic of Turkey.
A brief history of Anatolia, the land that is now the country of Turkey, but which was the country of many empires including Hittite, Phrygian, Macedonian, Selucid, Roman, Byzantine, Ottoman, and Republic of Turkey.

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Published by: A. Rod Paolini on Feb 27, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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Page -1-
A History of Anatolia
 A. Rod PaoliniJuly 3, 2011
 
Page -2-
Figure2
:001_Catalhoyuk_1
ANATOLIA
1
“If I have been able to see farther than others, it was because I stood on the shoulders of giants.”
Sir Isaac Newton
Paleolithic Era30,000 - 10,000 BCENeolithic Era10,000 - 3,500 BCEThe distinguishing characteristic of this agebetween 8000-5000 BCE is the start of production, farming and animal husbandry. Manin this age, left the caves and began to live instone and mud-brick dwellings. The mostimportant finds related to the Neolithic Age in Anatolia are in
Çatalhöyük
.
Çatal Hüyük
6,500 - 5000 BCEChalcolithic Age5,000 - 3,000 BCEMan started to make
pottery
of baked clay and to decorate theceramics. This is understood from the excavation finds insettlement centers such as Hacilar, Can Hasan, Yumuktepe,Gozlukule, Beycesultan, Alisar, Alacahoyuk. Relations withMesopotamia developed by way of the rivers Tigris andEuphratesEarly Bronze Age3,000 - 2,000 BCEThe most important finds of this period are in Troy and Alacahoyuk. During this era when the pottery wheel was put intouse, the Anatolian man learned to make statuettes of baked clay,marble, alabaster, bronze and gold with both religious anddecorative purposes.Middle Bronze Age 2,000 - 1,700 BCEThe trade relations with various Mesopotamian states andespecially with Assyria, caused cultural and artistic interactionand as the result of this interaction an Anatolian style withcharacteristics of its own was created. The political power dominating this age was the Hittite Empire. The typicalcharacteristics of the age can be understood from the excavationfinds in Bogazkoy-Hattusa in Central Anatolia, and the ceramicsfound in Troy, Western Anatolia prove the relations with theMycenaean civilization. Anatolia (Greek for east, or more literally, Land of the Sunrise), also called by the Latin name of 
1
 Asia Minor, is a region of continental Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey.
 
Page -3- Abraham1,800 - 1,550 BCELate Bronze Age1,700 - 1,200 BCETrojan War.Hittites1,800 - 1,200 BCEIron Age1,250 -Hellenic colonization1,000 BCEPhrygians1,200 - 700 BCEUrartian900 - 600 BCELydians 700 - 546 BCEPersians546 - 333 BCE Alexander the Great334 - 323 BCEHellensitic City-States500 - 200 BCECeltic279 BCE - 400 CECommon EraRomans400 BCE - 400 CEKing Attalus III of Pergammon (133 BCE)MithridatesZela (47 BCE)Parthian KingdomEastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire 395 - 1453Great Schism (1054)TurksSeljuk TurksBattle of Manzikirt (1071 - Alp Arslan)The Mongols (Genghiz Khan - 1200)Ottoman Turks (Osman I 1300 - 1326)Tatars (Tamerlane) 1402Ottoman (Osmanli) Empire (1453 - 1923)Fall of Constantinople (May 29, 1453 by Mehmetthe Conqueror)Suleyman the Magnificent 1520- 1566Sieges of Vienna (1529 and 1683)“Sick Man of Europe” (1853)Balkan WarsWorld War I Armenian massacresRepublic of TurkeyGhenghis Khan led the huge Mongol cavalryforce through the Islamic world from 1219 to1223. He return to Mongolia in 1223, and deathin 1227, meant that the main Mongol armywithdrew from the Islamic world. A Mongol forcedid return to Iran in 1250s, however, led byGhenghis Khan's grandson Hûlâgû, whoestablished the Mongols as a resident rulingpower over Iran, Iraq and much of Anatolia, until1335.

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