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Dervish

Dervish

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Published by Vladan Stojiljkovic
Dervish
Dervish

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Published by: Vladan Stojiljkovic on Mar 05, 2013
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DervishFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaFor other uses, see Dervish (disambiguation).This article needs additional citationsfor verification.Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may bechallenged and removed. (February 2008) A Palestinian dervish in the 1860s. A Qajar-era Persian dervish, seen here from an 1873 depiction of Tehran's Grand Bazaar.A Dervish or Darvesh[1] (from Persian , Darvīsh[2] via Turkish[3]) is someonetreading a Sufi Muslim ascetic path or "Tariqah", known for their extreme poverty andausterity, similar to mendicant friars in Christianity or Hindu/Buddhist/Jainsadhus.Contents [hide]1 Etymology2 Religious practice3 Orders4 Whirling5 Historical and political use of the term6 Begging7 See also8 References9 External links[edit]EtymologyThe Persian word darsh () is of ancient origin and descends from a Proto-Iranianword that appears in Avestan as drigu-, "needy, mendicant".[4] The Iranian word is probably further cognate with the Vedic Sanskrit word adhrigu-, an epithet of uncertainmeaning applied to several deities. The Vedic word is probably to be analysed as a-dhrigu-, that is "not dhrigu-," perhaps "not poor", i.e. "rich." The existence of this Vediccognate suggests that the institution of the holy mendicant was as prominent among theancient Indo-Iranian peoples as it has been historically in later Iran in the form of dervish brotherhoods and also in India in the form of the various schools of sannyasis.[5]However, because the etymology of the word is not apparent from the point of view of the modern Persian language, there have been attempts to make the parts of the wordinterpretable in terms of contemporary words and with reference to Sufic mysticalconcepts. Dar in Persian means "a door", so Dervish is said to literally mean "one whoopens the doors".[1] The Persian word also gives terms for "ascetic" in some languages,as in the Urdu phrase darveshaneh tabi'at, "an unflappable or ascetic temperament".[edit]Religious practice
 
Many Dervishes are mendicant ascetics who have taken a vow of poverty, unlikemullahs. The main reason they beg is to learn humility, but Dervishes are prohibited to beg for their own good. They have to give the collected money to other poor people.Others work in common professions; Egyptian Qadiriyya – known in Turkey as Kadiri – are fishermen, for example.Some classical writers indicate that the poverty of the Dervish is not merely economic.Saadi, for instance says in his Gulistan "Ten darweshes may sleep under one blanket, butone country cannot contain two kings"[6] and Rumi wrttes in Book 1 of his Masnavi[7]Water that's poured inside will sink the boatWhile water underneath keeps it afloat.Driving wealth from his heart to keep it pureKing Solomon preferred the title 'Poor':That sealed jar in the stormy sea out thereFloats on the waves because it's full of air,When you've the air of dervishood insideYou'll float above the world and there abide...[edit]Orders Dervishes (Mevlâna mausoleum, Konya, TurkeyThere are various orders of Dervishes, almost all of which trace their origins from variousMuslim saints and teachers, especially Ali and Abu Bakr. Various orders and subordershave appeared and disappeared over the centuries. Rifa'iyyah Dervishes spread into NorthAfrica, Turkey, the Balkans, Iran, Pakistan, India, Afghanistan and Tajikistan.[clarification needed]Other groups include the Bektashis, connected to the janissaries, and Senussi, who arerather orthodox in their beliefs. Other fraternities and subgroups chant verses of theQur'an, play drums or dance vigorously in groups, all according to their specifictraditions. Some practice quiet meditation, as is the case with most of the Sufi orders inSouth Asia, many of whom owe allegiance to, or were influenced by, the Chishti order.Each fraternity uses its own garb and methods of acceptance and initiation, some of which may be rather severe.[edit]WhirlingMain article: Sufi whirling Whirling dervishes, Rumi Fest 2007The whirling dance or Sufi whirling that is proverbially associated with Dervishes, is the practice of the Mevlevi Order in Turkey, and is part of a formal ceremony known as theSema. The Sema is only one of the many Sufi ceremonies performed to try to reachreligious ecstasy (majdhb, fana). The name Mevlevi comes from the Persian poet, Rumi(born in Balkh, modern day Afghanistan), whose shrine is in Turkey and who was a
 
Dervish himself. This practice, though not intended as entertainment, has become atourist attraction in Turkey.[8][9][edit]Historical and political use of the term A Palestinian Dervish in 1913 A Dervish taming a lion and a tiger. Mughal painting, c. 1650Various western historical writers have sometimes used the term dervish rather loosely,linking it to, among other things, the Mahdist uprising in Sudan, Mohammed AbdullahHassan's 1920 conflict with British forces in Somalia and other rebellions againstcolonial powers.In such cases, the term "Dervishes" was used as a generic (and often pejorative) term for the opposing Islamic entity and all members of its military, political and religiousinstitutions, including many persons who could not be described as "Dervishes" in thestrict sense. (For example, a contemporary British drawing of the fighting in Sudan wasentitled "The defeat of the Dervishes at Toski" (see History of Sudan (1884– 1898)#British response).[edit]BeggingWhile commonly the term dervish is used to describe beggars, a differentiation betweenmendicant Dervishes and common beggars can be made:[10]While they walk around praising the Lord, anyone according to his own desire mayvoluntarily drop some coins in it (a kashkul)... a real dervish who wears the proper robeand carries the kashkul does not beg, nor does he make any demands.Bektaši Bektašijska tekija u Vlori.Bektašije su islamsko versko bratstvo koje sledi učenja hadži-Bektaša Velija,anatolijskog mistika i derviša iz 13. veka. Bektašije su pobornici islamskog misticizma(sufizma), bliski šiitskom ogranku islama.Tokom osmanlijskog perioda, bektašizam se iz Anatolije raširio Balkanom, a bili suveoma uticajni među janičarima. Bektašije su gajile nepoštovanje prema društvenojhijerarhiji i prema raširenim običajima i obredima, što je našlo izraza u bezbrojnimšalama o bektašijama.[1]Danas se ovo učenje posebno sačuvalo među Albancima u Albaniji, Makedoniji iKosovu.Sadržaj/Садржај [sakrij/сакриј]

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