where is the angle between and . The four cases have a probability thatsums to unity, which is good, and each term is positive definite. If it's not clear whythese have been chosen this way, simply go back to the previous table. Forexample, the case labeled "F2" results in Alice measuring "+1" on her particle (along) and Bob measuring "+1" on his particle (along ). According to QM, this result(Alice and Bob each measuring "+1" along and respectively) is supposed tohappen with a frequency given by Eq. (2), so we simply copy that result as thepopulation fraction F2. The other cases follow in the same way. Again, this allowsus to trivially reproduce the quantum mechanical prediction in a completely local,deterministic, common-sense manner.
This may seem arbitrary at this point, because we aren't actually specifying any
by which these population fractions are generated. But that is precisely the point. The idea is that if we were to seriously advocate this kind of theory, we would posit some mechanism to explain these probabilities. For example, they might depend onsome further hidden parameters involving the original decaying particle, or perhaps someinfluence coming from the detectors which stimulates or otherwise affects the decay, or even some process by which the particle properties evolve based on local effects as theyfly apart.Anyway, so far the analysis is general, and we see that it's clearly possible to invent
mechanism which would explain the above populations, and thereby reproduce thequantum mechanical predictions in a completely local, deterministic, common-sense picture.However, when we allow Alice and Bob to choose from among
possible directionsalong which to measure the spin. We can go through the same kind of argument as before, and define populations for each of the (now) eight necessary cases:F1 of the pairs will be described by andF2 of the pairs will be described by and