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Attempt to Climatic Characterization of the Actual Moment in Relation With the Cosmic Cycles_ Ticleanu Et Al., 2008 _SGR

Attempt to Climatic Characterization of the Actual Moment in Relation With the Cosmic Cycles_ Ticleanu Et Al., 2008 _SGR

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Abstract of the paper presented at the Yearly Scientific Session of Geological Society of Romania - Bucharest 2008
Abstract of the paper presented at the Yearly Scientific Session of Geological Society of Romania - Bucharest 2008

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Conferinţa Anuală a SGR, Bucureşti, 4-5 Octombrie 2008
Attempt to climatic characterization of the actualmoment in relation with the cosmic cycles
Ţicleanu M.
1
, Constantin P.
, Ţicleanu N.
3
, Nicolescu R.
4
, Gheuca I.
1, 4, 5
Institutul Geologic al României, Str. Caransebeş 1, 012271 Bucureşti
1
mircea.ticleanu@yahoo.com
2
ex - Institutul Geologic al României
 paulct2004@yahoo.com
3
Universitatea din Bucureşti, Bd. N. Bălcescu 1, Bucureşti
 
Key wards:
climatic cycles, metagalactic cycle, galactic year, subgalactic cycle, Valach cycle,precessional year.One main task of the geological sciences now is to characterize the actual moment in connec-tion with the phases of the cosmic (astronomical) dynamic and/or climatic cycles for a real understand-ing of the present time, especially from the climatic point of view.From the great number of proposed cycles in the scientific papers, only some can be retained asreliable. By the help of these cycles, a characterization of the actual moment, a prediction for the fu-ture and the asserting of a pulsatory geodynamic model become possible.The major cycles are very useful to the time structure in Archaean and Proterozoic. The mediumcycles can be used to structure the Phanerozoic, and the short cycles are useful for Quaternary time(possibly for Pliocene-Quaternary time).Starting from a certain moment, the geological research activities had almost continuously inview the periodical character of some phenomena of different types, and thus a lot of cycles had beenproposed, with various time periods from which, one can mention tectonic, orogenic, interorogenic,geostructural, sedimentation, thermal, climatic, magnetic, metamorphic cycles. Inevitably, other branches of the geosciences: astronomy, geophysics, geography (planetary geology) were implied inthe efforts for a better knowledge of these cycles.
 
An important part of this research had the absolutetime determination which had made possible the specification of the temporal content of all types of cycles through an accurate time position of the stratigraphic scales up to the stage level. Also, a greatcontribution had been given, especially in the last period of time, by the sequential analyses confirmedby the more and more performant classic geological analyses (Hilgen, 1991 – “astronomic cyclostrati-graphy”).Among the numerous authors concerned with the nature, causes and periods of these cyclesthere can be mentioned: M. Milankovici (1920, 1941), J. Joly (1925), V. V. Belousov (1949), M. F. Lun-gerhausen (1963), Anderson (1967), Choubert (1967, 1978), D. Raup and J. Sepkoski (1982), N. V.Ivanov and A. V. Makedonov (1984) and many others. Among the Romanian geologists who had theintuition of the great importance of the ciclicity of geologic phenomena are N. Lupei (1975), and M.Paucă (1981). Our interest in this field were materialized in the proposal of a new climatic cycle namedby us “The Valah Cycle” (nom. Nov. Prague, 1998) with a relative long period (4.1 My); by some spe-cifications concerning the temporal content of the longer cycles; by spotlighting a sudden increase of the precessional cycle (year) duration at the beginning of the Hengelo interstade (~39 ka BP), and thepossible cause of this phenomenon – the capture of the Moon (Ţicleanu et., 2008a), as well.From the great number of the proposed cycles in the field of the geological phenomenologythere must be retained only the ones for which can be clarified the possible causal periods thatgenerated them, and the obvious effects determined on the Earth crust on longer periods of time, aswell. In respect with these cycles and also in respect with these effects, a coherent perspective on thegeological time becomes possible, but also it is possible to imagine the future Earth evolution, for dif-ferent periods of time.
 
Also in respect with these real cycles, it might be possible to imagine a viablegeodynamic model, and an accurate characterization of the actual dynamic moment for our planet, aswell.For achieving this perspective only a few real cycles were retained after a thorough analysis of agreat number of cycles proposed by different authors or by us in the previous papers. The followingcycles were considered:
The
 
Universal Supermegacycle
(~2.56 Gy),
The Vail-Payton Megacycle
(=
 
Conferinţa Anuală a SGR, Bucureşti, 4-5 Octombrie 2008
The Metagalactic Cycle
; ~362 My),
The Galactic Year 
(~181 My),
The Subgalactic Cycle
(
Raup-Sep-kovski Cycle
; ~26 My),
The Valach Cycle
(~4.1 My),
The Earth’s Eccentricity Cycle
 
(100 ky),
The Pre-cessional Year 
(~26 ky) and
The “Miniglaciations” Cycle
(~1 ky).
The Universal Supermegacycle (~2.56 Gy)
- Corresponding with what could be called the Uni-versal Supermegacycle, the Earth is placed for the moment towards the end of the cold superphase(~1,280 My), including all known glaciations starting with 950 Ma ago. Until now, this superphasecould end in about 340 My, and it was defined in contrast with a period exempted of glaciations (~1,300 My) which followed the Huronian glaciations (2,300 Ma).
The Vail-Payton Megacycle ( = The Metagalactic Cycle; ~362 My)
– The metagalactic cylesare, in the some time, eustatics cycles with global character and climatic ones.Taking into account the direct effects of this dynamic cycle, namely planetary transgressions andregressions, we can assume that the metagalactic cycle could be the consequence of some amplepulsations of the Earth, due to the variation of the total intensity of the metagalactic gravitational field.Possible periodical decrease of the gravitational intensity can determine the increase in volume of theterrestrial globe (with decrease in density) which conducts to a general retreat of oceans and seasshores, so that it leads to distinct epochs of geocration (epochs dominated by lands). The increase of the gravitational intensity of the metagalactic field may lead to periodical contractions of the Earthwhich can easily explain the thalassocration epochs (epochs dominated by oceans and seas). It isnecessary to mention that the moments of expansion of the terrestrial globe are accompanied by adecrease of the temperature of the inner and outer envelopes of the Earth while, the terrestrial globecontractions are accompanied by the increase of temperature of all the planetary envelopes.From the point of view of this cycle, the pre-geological phase (“The Star phase” – Macovei,1958) is extended exactly on the period of two metagalactic cycles. The geological time has 11 Vail-Payton megacycle (the last one incomplete), of which 3 and a half cycles are for the so-called Archaic,5 cycles and a half for the Proterozoic and the last 2 cycles for the Phanerozoic (of which the latest isincomplete).The first Archean metagalactic cycle (and the geological time as well) seems to correspond en-tirely to the anhydrous period of the Earth, namely the period without hydrosphere.The first Phanerozoic metagalactic cycle, corresponding to the Palaeozoic, was proposed by us(Ţicleanu et al., 2002a) as reference metagalactic cycle. It starts with a geocration moment, corres-ponding to the Proterozoic-Palaeozoic limit (Wendian-Cambrian), and it ands also with another geo-cration moment, placed at the Palaeozoic-Mesozoic limit (Permian-Triasic), containing also a thlasso-cration phase, placed in the Lower Palaeozoic (Silurian).The second Phanerozoic metagalactic cycle (respectively only about 2/3 of its length) corres-ponds stratigraphically to the Mesozoic and Cainozoic. During this period, in the Senonian, a newthalassocration phase was surpassed. Obviously this cycle will end within about 115 My by a new geo-cration moment and a cooling process of the entire planetary envelope.In report to the different Proterozoic subdivisions and in report to rock complexes (series andgroups) separated for the Archean, but in report to different pre-Phanerozoic orogenic phases as well,distinct names can be proposed partly for every metagalactic cycle.
The Galactic Year (~181 My)
– this cycle corresponds to the galactic Solar system revolutionaround the centre of our Galaxy. For the galactic year the Mesozoic could be accepted as a refferenceyear cycle. The Palaeozoic is composed of two galactic years, one the Lower Palaeozoic and thesecond the Upper Palaeozoic. The pre-geological phase (“The Star phase”) extended on four galacticyears, and the Archean includes seven galactic years. Proterozoic has 11 galactic years. From the lastgalactic year, corresponding to Cainozoic, only about 67 My passed (went over).A concidence was noticed between one galactic year period, and the temporary extension of thegeotectonic cycles. Thus, for instance, the galactic year corresponding to Lower Palaeozoic suits tothe Caledonian geotectonic cycle while Upper Palaeozoic corresponds to the Hercinic geotectoniccycle. The Upper Kimmeric geotectonic cycle could be equivalent only to the galactic year corresponding to Mesozoic, and the Alpine one could suit properly only the galactic year corresponding to Cainozoic. Equivalencies could be made between the geotectonic cycles of Proterozoic era (Karelian, Late Karelian, Gothian, Grenvillian, Assyntic, Brioverian, etc), and thegalactic years corresponding to Proterozoic, as well.Taking into account the internal structure of a galactic year, which seems to be drawn up after the subgalactic cycles, it is interesting to distinguish some cold and warm galactic seasons (galacticsummers and winters), which give to the galactic year the character of a great and important climaticcycle. The main glaciations known in the Earth history, beginning with the end of Proterozoic (includingthe last galactic winter manifested at the K/T boundary), correspond (with scarce exceptions, amongwhich the most important is the Quaternary glaciation) to the cold phases of the galactic cycle (year),
 
Conferinţa Anuală a SGR, Bucureşti, 4-5 Octombrie 2008
to the galactic winters respectively (Ţicleanu et al., 2008b). Between these cold phases there may becalculated periods of time between 155 My and 190 My that reflect, approximatively, the galactic year period (about 181 My), but, on the one hand the position of these glaciations is approximately, asabsolute age, and on the other hand the galactic winter extends on a longer period of time, and thethermal minimum of it could be placed differently from a galactic cycle to another due either to theinfluence of longer cycles (the metagalactic cycle) or of shorter ones.In correlation with the galactic year, the Earth moved towards a galactic summer which wouldreach its climax about 26 Ma; the next galactic winter (with its middle after 26+90 Ma) will besuperposed on the next geocratic moment of the Vail-Payton megacycle bringing aboutunprecedented crisis of the biosphere.
The Subgalactic Cycle (Raup-Sepkovski Cycle; ~26 My)
- These were put into evidence bystatistical paleoecological studies made by Raup and Sepkoski (1982) on a 250 My range(Mesozoic+Cainozoic), for the marine environment. The repetition of the significant extinctions onranges of about 26 My seems to have different amplitudes, that may give the internal structure of thegalactic year.The subgalactic cycles may reflect possible pulsations of the Solar system. In order to explainthe cycle with an about 26 My length, many reasons were taken into account, among which the mostinteresting (but the least credible) were the ones imagining that this cycle was generated by acompanion star(s) of the Sun (“Nemesis hypothesis” – Müller,1984; Whitmire & Jackson, 1984). Theremust be noticed that Alvarez et al., (1980) initiated the idea of a catastroph brought about by largemeteorits fallings within 28,5 My intervals.About the extinctions taken into account in order to distinguish a subgalactic type cyclicity theremust be mentioned the connection made by Ginsburg (1964, 1986) among these extinctions and theample marine regressions, with global character. As a matter of fact, the extinction curve made byRaup si Sepkoski distinguished the periodic succesion of some eutaxy and oligotaxy epochs, thedifferent amplitude of the extinctions suggesting the influences of a superior order cycle (the galacticyear). It is obvious that the extinctions amplitude increased during the galactic winters.In connection with the Raup-Sepkovski cycles, a minor oligotaxic epoch could be prefigured,ending in about 11 My.
The Valach Cycle (~4.1 My)
– Was spotlighted by analyzing the stratigraphical position of theNeogene coal generating stages (Ţicleanu M. et al., nom. Nov. Prague, 1998). Further, the succes-sion of warm and cold phases of this cycle was verified for a period of up to 87 My, comprising theSenonian, respectively. The Valahian cycle might reflect possible pulsations of the Solar system, withapproaches and deviations of the planets, to and from the Sun. The approaches correspond to thewarm phases that led to transgressions and coal generating stages. There it is important to be men-tioned that the last cold phase of the Valahian cycle is represented by the Quaternary glaciation itself.The warm phases of the Valach cycle established all the coal generating stages in the last 87 My, aswell. During this cycle the Earth will pass a warm phase with its climax in about 1.1 My.
The Earth’s Eccentricity Cycle (100 ky)
– These cycles are due to the constant fluctuating of the shape of the Earth’s orbit around the Sun; when this is less elliptic, we are in the the cold phase of this cycle, and when it is more elliptic a warm phases begins.The cold phases of this cycle led to the appearance of the Quaternary glaciation phases, on thebasis of the Valahian cycle cold phase (Quaternary glaciation). The warm phases corresponded to theinterglacial phases. These, in their turn, led to the appearance of the main coal seams in coal generat-ing phases.The Quaternary glacial and interglacial phases have been related to the cold and warm phasesof the 100-ky cycle; in connection with this, the last glaciation phase included Würm I + Würm II coldepochs and, after the present interglacial, a new glaciation will follow, with its climax after 40,000years.
The Precessional Year (~26 ky)
– It is due to the precessional movement that established asuccession of cold and warm phases, so-called precessional summers and winters. The precessionalsummers can be correlated to the important banks of the Cainozoic coal complexes main coal seams.The actual period of the precessional cycle (26.000 years) may be very recent. Our reconsidera-tions aiming the climatic changes from the end of the Upper Pleistocene (Ţicleanu et al, 2008a) led tothe idea of the presence in the past of an old precessional cycle, whose length was of about 14.000years only. The sudden increase of the precessional cycle duration seem to had taken place about39.000 years ago. For the moment we linked this phenomenon to a possible Moon capture by theEarth (probably, in the beginning, the Moon was the first planet of Solar system).Before this moment the cold phases (precessional winters) of the precessional cycle can be verywell correlated to the cold epochs Würm I and Würm II, and the intra-würmian warming complex (that

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