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Dying to be famous: Retrospective cohort study of rock and pop star mortality and its association with adverse childhood experiences

Dying to be famous: Retrospective cohort study of rock and pop star mortality and its association with adverse childhood experiences

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Published by Psychomaniac

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Psychomaniac on Mar 06, 2013
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

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03/06/2013

 
Cydne tj gf lmkjus? rftrjspfbtdvfbjhjrt stucy jl rjb` mnc pjp stmrkjrtmidty mnc dts mssjbdmtdjn wdthmcvfrsf bhdichjjc fxpfrdfnbfs
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GKO Jpfn 
71=70
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Wjb` mnc pjp lmkf ds mssjbdmtfc wdthrds` tm`dne) sugstmnbf usf mnc prfkmturf kjrtmidty.Uf fxmkdnf rfimtdjnshdps gftwffn lmkf mncprfkmturf kjrtmidty mnc tfst hjw subh rfimtdjnshdpsvmry wdth typf jl pfrljrkfr (fe) sjij jr gmnckfkgfr$ mnc nmtdjnmidty mnc whfthfr bmusf jl cfmthds idn`fc wdth prflmkf (mcvfrsf bhdichjjc$fxpfrdfnbfs.
Cfsden?
M rftrjspfbtdvf bjhjrt mnmiysds gmsfc jngdjermphdbmi cmtm. Mn mbtumrdmi kfthjcjijey bjkpmrfspjstlmkf kjrtmidty tj kmtbhfc efnfrmi pjpuimtdjns.Bjx survdvmi mnc ijedstdb rferfssdjn tfbhndqufsfxmkdnf rds` mnc prjtfbtdvf lmbtjrs ljr survdvmi mncidn`s gftwffn mcvfrsf bhdichjjc fxpfrdfnbfs mncbmusf jl cfmth) rfspfbtdvfiy.
Rfttdne?
Njrth Mkfrdbm mnc Furjpf.
Qmrtdbdpmnts?
=384 rjb` mnc pjp stmrs rfmbhdne lmkfgftwffn =46< mnc 711<.
Jutbjkfs?
Rtmrs
pjstlmkf kjrtmidty rfimtdvf tj mef+)sfx+ mnc fthndbdty+kmtbhfc pjpuimtdjns (VRM mnc V@$0vmrdmtdjns dn survdvmi wdth pfrljrkfr typf) mnc dnbmusf jl kjrtmidty wdth fxpjsurf tj mcvfrsf bhdichjjcfxpfrdfnbfs.
Wfsuits?
Wjb`*pjp stmr kjrtmidty dnbrfmsfs rfimtdvf tjthf efnfrmi pjpuimtdjn wdth tdkf sdnbf lmkf. Dnbrfmsfsmrf erfmtfr dn Njrth Mkfrdbmn stmrs mnc thjsf wdthsjij bmrffrs. Wfimtdvf kjrtmidty gfedns tj rfbjvfr76 yfmrs mltfr lmkf dn Furjpfmn gut njt NjrthMkfrdbmn stmrs. Shjsf rfmbhdne lmkf lrjk =481jnwmrcs hmvf gfttfr survdvmi rmtfs. Ljr cfbfmsfcstmrs) bmusf jl cfmth wms kjrf id`fiy tj gf sugstmnbfusf jr rds`+rfimtfc dn thjsf wdth kjrf mcvfrsfbhdichjjc fxpfrdfnbfs.
Bjnbiusdjns?
Wfimtdjnshdps gftwffn lmkf mnckjrtmidty vmry wdth pfrljrkfrs
bhmrmbtfrdstdbs.Mcvfrsf fxpfrdfnbfs dn fmriy idlf kmy ifmvf sjkfprfcdspjsfc tj hfmith+cmkmedne gfhmvdjurs) wdthlmkf mnc fxtrfkf wfmith prjvdcdne erfmtfrjppjrtundtdfs tj fnemef dn rds`+tm`dne. Kdiidjns jlyjuths wdsh tj fkuimtf thfdr dbjns. Dt ds dkpjrtmntthfy rfbjendsf thmt sugstmnbf usf mnc rds`+tm`dne kmygf rjjtfc dn bhdichjjc mcvfrsdty rmthfr thmn sffdnethfk ms sykgjis jl subbfss.
DNSWJCVBSDJN
Cfspdtf thfdr skmii nukgfrs) thf gfhmvdjurmnc hfmith jl rjb` mnc pjp stmrs rfbfdvffxtfnsdvf pugidb fxpjsurf
= 7
mnc mreumgiy fxfrt m cdsprjpjrtdjnmtf dn
ufnbf jn pjpu+imtdjn mttdtucfs mnc gfhmvdjurs.
2
6
 Udthdnthf rjb` mnc pjp kusdb dncustrdfs) fxbfssdvf
MWSDBIF RVKKMWTMrtdbif ljbus
Cfspdtf jltfn bjnsdcfrmgif wfmith) rjb` mnc pjpstmrs sullfr hdehfr ifvfis jl kjrtmidty thmn cfkj+ermphdbmiiy kmtbhfc dncdvdcumis dn thf efnfrmipjpuimtdjn.
Qrfvdjus stucdfs hmvf njt bjnsdcfrfc whfthfrsubh kjrtmidty rds`s dn stmrs vmry wdth thf bhmr+mbtfrdstdbs jl thf pfrljrkfr jr whfthfr bmusf jlcfmth kmy gf rfimtfc tj fxpfrdfnbfs prfcmtdnelmkf.
Uf fxmkdnf whfthfr stmrs stdii sullfr fxbfss kjr+tmidty bjkpmrfc tj kmtbhfc efnfrmi pjpuimtdjns)dcfntdly whdbh cfkjermphdb mnc pfrljrkfr+typfbhmrmbtfrdstdbs jl pfrljrkfrs mllfbt survdvmi mnckfmsurf mssjbdmtdjns gftwffn mcvfrsf bhdichjjcfxpfrdfnbfs (MBF$ mnc bmusf jl cfmth.
@fy kfssmefs
Kjrtmidty jl rjb` mnc pjp stmrs vmrdfs wdthcfkjermphdbs) nmtdjnmidty mnc jthfr pfrljrkfrbhmrmbtfrdstdbs whdif bmusf jl cfmth ds kjrfid`fiy tj gf rds` rfimtfc dn thjsf whj hmvf sul+lfrfc MBFs.
Lmkf dnbrfmsfs jppjrtundtdfs tj dncuief fstmg+idshfc rds` gfhmvdjurs subh ms sugstmnbf mgusf.Hjwfvfr) subh rds`+tm`dne kmy gf rjjtfc dnfmridfr MBFs) thf dkpmbt jl whdbh fvfn unidkdtfcwfmith kmy njt luiiy rfcrfss.
Rtmrs mrf dnliufntdmi ldeurfs dn thf cfvfijpkfntmnc cdssfkdnmtdjn jl yjuth buiturf. M gfttfruncfrstmncdne jl thf uncfriydne bmusfs jl rds`+tm`dne dn pfrljrkfrs kmy hfip cfeimkjrdsf subhgfhmvdjur mnc rfcubf dts mppfmi tj lmns mncwjuic+gf rjb` mnc pjp stmrs.
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ft mi 
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Jpfn Mbbfss Wfsfmrbh
 erjup.gko.bjkjn Omnumry <) 71=2 + Qugidshfc gy gkojpfn.gko.bjkCjwnijmcfc lrjk
 
mibjhji usf) rfbrfmtdjnmi mnc prfsbrdptdjn crue usf mncjthfr rds`+tm`dne gfhmvdjurs hmvf gffn cfsbrdgfc ms ugd+qudtjus.
<
Dntfrnmtdjnmi kfcdm bjvfrmef fnsurfs thmt lmnsmnc thf wdcfr pugidb mrf bjnstmntiy dnljrkfc jl stmrs
hfcjndstdb cdspimys mnc fqumiiy bmpturfs thfdr bjnsf+qufnbfs whfn gfhmvdjurs gfbjkf prjgifkmtdb mnc subhdncdvdcumis sff` trfmtkfnt.
7
Kfcdm bjvfrmef jl rjb` mncpjp stmrs
cfmths typdbmiiy sueefsts fifvmtfc rds`s jl kjr+tmidty mt yjune mefs mnc fvfn m lmnbdlui) gut unsugstmntd+mtfc) pfm` dn cfmths mt mef 75 yfmrs (fe) @urt Bjgmdn) Mky Udnfhjusf mnc Omnds Ojpidn$.
5
Bursjry fxmkdnmtdjns jl rjb` mnc pjp stmr cfmths bmnlmdi tj mbbjunt ljr bjnljuncdne cfkjermphdbs. Ljrdnstmnbf) thf rjb` mnc pjp stmr phfnjkfnjn ds rfimtdvfiy nfw (imrefiy lrjk thf =461s$ wdth cfmths jl subh stmrs dnjicfr mef jniy njw fkfredne. Cfmths thmt jbbur dn stmrs
imtfr yfmrs kmy rfbfdvf ifss bjvfrmef cuf tj cdkdndshfckfcdm mppfmi jr ijwfr shjb` lmbtjr (fe) ljiijwdne m ijne gmttif wdth bmnbfr$. Kjrfjvfr) cfmths mt yjunefr mefsrjutdnfiy jbbur dn cfvfijpfc bjuntrdfs fvfn dn thfefnfrmi pugidb (fe) 976 yfmrs0 <5 133 dn thf VRM 
8
mnc8=7< dn thf V@ 
4
dn 7114$. Shfsf cfmths mrf misj cdsprj+pjrtdjnmtfiy mssjbdmtfc wdth sugstmnbf usf wdth) ljrdnstmnbf) mrjunc jnf dn ljur cfmths dn =<+yfmr+jics tj73+yfmr+jics dn Fneimnc mttrdgutmgif tj mibjhji.
=1
Cfspdtfsubh bjnljuncfrs) fpdcfkdjijedbmi mnmiysfs jl stmrsrfmbhdne lmkf up tj thf gfednndne jl thds kdiifnndukshjwfc thfy sullfr cdsprjpjrtdjnmtf kjrtmidty fvfn whfnbjntrjiifc ljr mef) sfx) fthndbdty mnc nmtdjnmidty.
==
Shf pmst cfbmcf hms sffn unprfbfcfntfc bhmnefs dneijgmi bjkkundbmtdjns) dnbrfmsdne kfcdm fxpjsurf(fe) bfifgrdty kmemzdnfs mnc ejssdp wfgsdtfs$ mnc jthfrbjvfrmef (fe) sjbdmi nftwjr`dne$ jl bfifgrdtdfs
=7
ms wfiims thf fxtfnsdjn mnc rfsusbdtmtdjn jl jicfr stmrs
bmrffrsthrjueh gmnc rfundjns mnc njstmiedm tjurs (fe) Sm`fShmt 
=2
mnc Rtjnf Wjsfs
=3
$. Lurthfrkjrf) sugstmntdvfnukgfrs jl stmrs mnc ljrkfr stmrs jvfr <1 yfmrs jl mefmrf jniy njw gfbjkdne mvmdimgif ljr stucy. Brdtdbmiihjwfvfr) stucdfs dn thf efnfrmi pjpuimtdjn mrf fstmgidsh+dne mcvfrsf bhdichjjc fxpfrdfnbfs (MBFs$ ms kmojrlmbtjrs dn
ufnbdne sugstmnbf usf mnc hfmith jutbjkfsdn imtfr idlf.
=6 =<
 Mithjueh sjkf rjb` mnc pjp stmrs kmy sff` lmkf ms m kfbhmndsk tj fsbmpf cfprdvfc mnc mgusdvfbhdichjjcs
=5
subh lmbtjrs mrf rmrfiy bjnsdcfrfc whfnfxmkdndne thfdr prfkmturf kjrtmidty. Dnstfmc) sugstmnbfusf mnc rds`+tm`dne dn stmrs mrf imrefiy cdsbussfc dn tfrks jl hfcjndsk) kusdb dncustry buiturf) rfspjnsfs tj thf prfs+surfs jl lmkf jr fvfn pmrt jl thf brfmtdvf prjbfss.
=8
Hfrf) wf fxmkdnf thf dkpmbt jl lmkf jn kjrtmidty dnNjrth Mkfrdbmn mnc Furjpfmn rjb` mnc pjp stmrs. Ufupcmtf m prfvdjus fpdcfkdjijedbmi mnmiysds
==
tj dnbiucfkjrf rfbfnt stmrs (rfmbhdne lmkf gftwffn 7111 mnc 711<$mnc dnbjrpjrmtf imrefr nukgfrs jl jicfr mnc fxpfrljr+kfrs. Uf fxmkdnf rds` mnc prjtfbtdvf lmbtjrs ljr kjrtmidty dn stmrs. Ljr thf
rst tdkf wf misj fxpijrf thf rfimtdvf bjntrd+gutdjns jl MBFs mnc jthfr pfrljrkfr bhmrmbtfrdstdbs tjbmusf jl prfkmturf cfmth mkjne rjb` mnc pjp stmrs.
KFSHJCRRfifbtdne rjb` mnc pjp stmrs
 Udth nj dntfrnmtdjnmiiy merffc cf
ndtdjn jl whmt bjnstd+tutfs m rjb` jr pjp stmr wf usfc imref) fstmgidshfc kusdbpjiis tj dcfntdly whdbh dncdvdcumis tj dnbiucf. Mn dntfr+nmtdjnmi pjii jl jvfr 711 111 lmns) fxpfrts mnc brdtdbsdcfntd
fc thf mii+tdkf tjp =111 miguks up tj thf yfmr=444.
=4
Shds pjii wms njt rfpfmtfc dn sugsfqufnt yfmrsgut mn jnidnf pjii+jl+pjiis njw bjkgdnfs >6111 migukbhmrts lrjk fxpfrts) lmns mnc brdtdbs mnc prjvdcfsmnnumi rmn`dnes jl thf gfst miguks (http?**www.gfstfvfrmiguks.bjk$. Mijne wdth thf =111 miguks up tj=444) thf tjp 21 miguks fmbh yfmr lrjk 7111 tj 711< wfrf dnbiucfc dn thds stucy (tjtmi n;=7=1$) wdth mkdndkuk jl 6 yfmrs lmkf bjnsdcfrfc nfbfssmry tj bmibu+imtf survdvmi. Mny sjij pfrljrkfr jr erjup kfkgfr wdthmn miguk dn thds idst wms dnbiucfc dn thf bjhjrt (fx+biucdne bjkpdimtdjn*sjunctrmb` miguks) n;==0tmgif =$.
MWSDBIF RVKKMWTRtrfneths mnc idkdtmtdjns jl thds stucy
Wjb` mnc pjp stmrs rfprfsfnt m undquf jppjrtundty tj fxmkdnfm erjup sjkftdkfs wdth fxtrfkf wfmith gut jltfn lrjk pjjrjr kjcfst gmb`erjuncs.
Mithjueh stmrs mrf typdbmiiy njt mbbfssdgif thrjueh trmcdtdjnmisurvfy tfbhndqufs bjnsdcfrmgif dnljrkmtdjn ds mvmdimgif jnthfk thrjueh gdjermphdbmi pugidbmtdjns) nfws mnc jthfr kfcdmbjvfrmef.
Shf mbburmby mnc bjkpiftfnfss jl cmtm bjiimtfc lrjk kfcdmmnc gdjermphdbmi sjurbfs bmnnjt gf qumntdldfc. Hjwfvfr) subhidkdtmtdjns mrf unid`fiy tj hmvf efnfrmtfc thf pmttfrns dcfntdldfcdn thds stucy.
Smgif =
Rmkpif sfifbtdjn? fxbiusdjns mnc dnbiusdjns
N &
Miguks =7=1 =11.1FxbiucfcBjkpdimtdjn miguks 7 1.7Rjunctrmb`s 4 1.5Mccdtdjnmi miguks gy pfrljrkfrs mirfmcydnbiucfc/754 77.8Dnbiucfc 472 5<.2Dncdvdcumis (lrjk 472 miguks$ =5=3 =11.1FxbiucfcFxbiucfc efnrf
8= 3.5Njt lrjk Njrth Mkfrdbm jr Furjpf <4 3.1Dnbiucfc =6<3 4=.2Kdssdne cmtmNj nmtdjnmidty mnc cmtf jl gdrth 76 =.<Nj nmtdjnmidty = 1.=Nj cmtf jl gdrth 34 2.=Dnbiucfc =384 46.7
/Uhfrf mccdtdjnmi miguks dnbiucfc nfw gmnc kfkgfrs subhdncdvdcumis wfrf misj dnbiucfc dn thf ldnmi cmtm sft.
Bjuntry) giufs) omzz) vjbmi)bfitdb) lji`) giufermssmnc spj`fn wjrc.
7
Gfiids KM) Huehfs @) Rhmrpifs J)
ft mi 
.
GKO Jpfn 
71=70
7
?f117184. cjd?=1.==2<*gkojpfn+71=7+117184
Cydne tj gf lmkjus
 erjup.gko.bjkjn Omnumry <) 71=2 + Qugidshfc gy gkojpfn.gko.bjkCjwnijmcfc lrjk
 
Vsdne mnc brjss+rflfrfnbdne gftwffn `fy wfgsdtfs(fe) Ud`dpfcdm) GGB Kusdb) Imst LK) Mii Kusdb mnc jl 
+bdmi gmnc wfgsdtfs$) gdjermphdfs) mnc pugidshfc mnthjij+edfs) fmbh dncdvdcumi
s cmtf jl gdrth mnc survdvmi stmtusjn 71 Lfgrumry 71=7 wms dcfntd
fc. Gmsfc jn kusdb bims+sd
bmtdjns lrjkhttp?**www.miikusdb.bjk) thjsf lrjkthf kmdnstrfmk bmtfejrdfs jl pjp*rjb`) pun`) rmp) W,G(rhythk mnc giufs$) fifbtrjndbm mnc nfw mef wfrfdnbiucfc. Dncdvdcumis lrjk efnrfs typdbmiiy rfemrcfc msnjt gfdne kmdnstrfmk dn gjth Njrth Mkfrdbm (NM$ mncFurjpf (FV$ (bjuntry) giufs) omzz) vjbmi) bfitdb) lji`)giufermss mnc spj`fn wjrc$ wfrf rfkjvfc. Shjsf ljr whjk cmtf jl gdrth jr nmtdjnmidty wms un`njwn wfrfmisj fxbiucfc mijne wdth mnyjnf njt jl Furjpfmn jrNjrth Mkfrdbmn nmtdjnmidty (tmgif =$. Jl thf
nmismkpif (n;=384$) 66.4& wfrf lrjk NM mnc 33.=& lrjkFV. Uf cdc njt cdstdneudsh cdllfrfnt ifvfis jl lmkfmkjne stmrs. Hjwfvfr) thfy wfrf bimssd
fc ms sjij jrgmnc pfrljrkfrs) wdth mn dncdvdcumi bjnsdcfrfc m sjijpfrljrkfr dl thfy hmc m sjij miguk dn thf stucy0 rfemrc+ifss jl whfthfr thds prfbfcfc jr ljiijwfc subbfss msm gmnc kfkgfr (fe) Qhdi Bjiidns mnc Efnfsds0 Rtdne mncShf Qjidbf$.
Bmusf jl cfmth mnc MBFs
Cmtf mnc bmusf jl cfmth wfrf dcfntd
fc ljr thf =25cfbfmsfc dncdvdcumis. Bmusfs jl cfmth wfrf cdbhjtj+kdsfc dntj
sugstmnbf usf jr rds`+rfimtfc cfmths
(crue jr mibjhji+rfimtfc bhrjndb cdsjrcfr) jvfrcjsf jr mbbdcfnt mnc jthfr rds`+rfimtfc bmusfs thmt kmy jr kmy njhmvf gffn rfimtfc tj sugstmnbf usf) df) sudbdcf mnc vdj+ifnbf$ mnc
jthfr
. Ljr thjsf whj hmc cdfc) MBFs wfrfdcfntd
fc thrjueh thf smkf jnidnf mnc pugidshfcgdjermphdbmi sjurbfs. MBFs wfrf tm`fn lrjk thf UHJ+stmncmrcdsfc MBF qufstdjnnmdrf
71
mnc hfrf dnbiucfcsullfrdne ms m bhdic? (=$ physdbmi mgusf0 (7$ sfxumi mgusf0(2$ sugstmntdvf vfrgmi mgusf0 idvdne wdth? (3$ m cfprfssfc)kfntmiiy dii) sudbdcmi jr bhrjndbmiiy dii pfrsjn0 (6$ msugstmnbf+mgusdne hjusfhjic kfkgfr0 (<$ m lmkdiy wdthmn dnbmrbfrmtfc hjusfhjic kfkgfr0 (5$ m sfpmrmtfclmkdiy jr (8$ cjkfstdb vdjifnbf. Cmtm ljr MBFs dn fmbhdncdvdcumi
s pmst wfrf dncfpfncfntiy bjiifbtfc gy twjrfsfmrbhfrs (JR) @MH0 bjnbjrcmnbf 45.6&$ mnc bjn+
dbts rfsjivfc gy KMG mnc @H.
Kfmsurdne pjdnt jl lmkf
Ljr mn jgofbtdvf kfmsurf jl mef mnc cmtf jl lmkf) wfusfc thf fmridfst jl cmtf jl 
rst bhmrt subbfss (n;=1=7$ jrcmtf jl rfifmsf jl fmridfst miguk dnbiucfc dn thf stucy (n;355$. Bhmrt subbfss wms kfmsurfc ms thf fmridfst jl  whfn mn dncdvdcumi
rst mppfmrfc jn mn miguk dn thfSjp 31 V@ J
bdmi Bhmrt (n;<2<$ jr Sjp 31 VRGdiigjmrc 711 (n;724$. Ljr thjsf wdthjut Sjp 31 miguks)m Sjp 31 sdneif (V@ bhmrt n;750 VR Gdiigjmrc Hjt =11)n;=$ wms usfc mnc) ljr rfkmdndne pfrljrkfrs) thf fmridfst Sjp 31 miguk jr sdneif dn m spfbdmidst VR bhmrt (Qjp)n;850 Gimb`) n;=20 Hfmtsff`frs) n;4$ wms usfc. Shf fmrid+fst yfmr jl lmkf wms =46< ljr Fivds Qrfsify mnc thf imtfst  wms 711< ljr 36 dncdvdcumis dnbiucdne Iupf Ldmsbj)Wfednm Rpf`tjr mnc kfkgfrs lrjk gmncs dnbiucdne  Mrbtdb Kjn`fys mnc Rnjw Qmtrji.
Bmibuimtdne survdvmi
Rurvdvmi sdnbf gfbjkdne lmkjus wms bmibuimtfc ljr bjk+pmrdsjn tj fxpfbtfc survdvmi gmsfc jn efnfrmi pjpuim+tdjns (kmtbhfc tj stmrs ljr sfx) nmtdjnmidty) fthndbdty) cmtfjl lmkf mnc mef mt lmkf$. NM mnc FV stmrs wfrf cjkd+nmtfc gy thf VRM (43.1&$ mnc thf V@ (85.3&$ nmtdjnmi+dtdfs) rfspfbtdvfiy) mnc thfrfljrf VRM mnc V@ nmtdjnmipjpuimtdjns wfrf usfc ljr bjkpmrdsjns. Mnmiysds utdidsfcthf mbtumrdmi survdvmi kfthjc (df) mef stmncmrcdsfc rfim+tdvf survdvmi$.
==
Dncdvdcumi pfrljrkfrs wfrf kmtbhfc tjbjrrfspjncdne mnnumi survdvmi prjgmgdidtdfs fxpfrdfnbfcgy mvfrmef dncdvdcumis (mef) sfx mnc fthndbdty kmtbhfc$dn thf efnfrmi pjpuimtdjn dn jr nfmr thfdr yfmr jl lmkf.Efnfrmi pjpuimtdjn survdvmi prjgmgdidtdfs wfrf tm`fnlrjk bjhjrt idlf tmgifs. Ljr FV stmrs) wf usfc thf71=1+gmsfc V@ hdstjrdb bjhjrt kfn mnc wjkfn idlftmgifs (=466
71=1$
7=
 wdth pjpuimtdjn cfnjkdnmtjrsrftrj+mcoustfc usdne thf 711= V@ bfnsus mnc sugsfqufnt kdermtdjn stucdfs. Ljr NM) wf bmibuimtfc bjhjrt tmgifslrjk thf VRM cfbfnndmi pfrdjc idlf tmgifs gy usdne mnjllsft trmnspjsdtdjn kmtrdx.
77
Ljr yfmrs jl lmkf lrjk =466tj =4<3 wf mppidfc thf =464
=4<= cfbfnndmi tmgifs) mncsj jn. Ljr thf yfmrs sdnbf 7116) wf mppidfc thf 7115 VRM mnnumi pfrdjc idlf tmgifs. Wmbf+spfbd
b VR tmgifs wfrf bmi+buimtfc sfpmrmtfiy ljr whdtf mnc gimb` kfn mnc wjkfn(dn =464
=4<= cfbfnndmi tmgifs) anjn+whdtf% wms usfc msgimb` wms njt spfbd
fc$. Dn tjtmi) =3 ==7 sfts jl idlf tmgifs wfrf usfc tj efnfrmtf rflfrfnbf survdvmi rmtfs? V@ kfn)V@ wjkfn) VR gimb` kfn) VR gimb` wjkfn) VR whdtfkfn mnc VR whdtf wjkfn. Wfimtdvf rjb` mnc pjp stmr sur+ vdvmi wms bmibuimtfc gy fxprfssdne thfdr survdvmi ms m pfr+bfntmef jl thf mvfrmef jl thf bjrrfspjncdne survdvmiprjgmgdidtdfs lrjk thf kmtbhfc rflfrfnbf pjpuimtdjns. Mef+stmncmrcdsfc rfimtdvf survdvmi mnc 46& BDs wfrf bmi+buimtfc ljr mii pfrdjcs up tj 71 Lfgrumry 71=7. Ms 71Lfgrumry 71=7 wms jur tfrkdnmtdjn cmtf) wf mcoustfc yfmrjl lmkf tj run lrjk 7= tj 71 Lfgrumry. Hfnbf) FivdsQrfsify) whjsf
rst miguk wms rfifmsfc dn Omnumry =46<) wms kmtbhfc tj thf survdvmi prjgmgdidtdfs jl thf bjhjrt jl VR whdtf kfn mefc 7= dn =466. Rurvdvmi prjgmgdidtdfs dnthf V@ nmtdjnmi idlf tmgifs hmvf nj pugidshfc BDs mncthfrfljrf cdllfrfnbfs mrf mssukfc tj gf sdend
bmnt whfnkmtbhfc pjpuimtdjn survdvmi rmtfs lmii jutsdcf thf 46&BDs ljr stmrs.Bjx rferfssdjn mnmiysds wms usfc tj dcfntdly rfimtdjn+shdps gftwffn mef) sfx) nmtdjnmidty) fthndbdty) pfrljrkfrtypf (gmnc jr sjij$) mef mt lmkf mnc survdvmi lrjk pjdnt jl lmkf. Jthfr mnmiysfs usfc
υ
·) Kmnn+Uhdtnfy V tfstsmnc gmb`wmrcs bjncdtdjnmi ijedstdb rferfssdjn. Mnmiysfs wfrf uncfrtm`fn dn Qrfcdbtdvf Mnmiytdbs Rjltwmrf(QMRU$ \.=8. Fthdbmi mpprjvmi wms njt rfqudrfc ms miicmtm wfrf mbbfssfc thrjueh pugidbiy mvmdimgif kmtfrdmis.
Gfiids KM) Huehfs @) Rhmrpifs J)
ft mi 
.
GKO Jpfn 
71=70
7
?f117184. cjd?=1.==2<*gkojpfn+71=7+117184
2
Cydne tj gf lmkjus
 erjup.gko.bjkjn Omnumry <) 71=2 + Qugidshfc gy gkojpfn.gko.bjkCjwnijmcfc lrjk

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