Following Heidegger’s critique of Post-Socratic Western philosophy, Norberg-Schulz’appraisal that Kahn’s theory is insufficient and naive is based in what he sees as Kahn’sPlatonism, where
. Plato’s philosophy is understood to bedualistic in its division between
as reality and
as illusion, whereasHeideggers’ structurally unified ontology is based upon
Kahn’s philosophy evidently has Platonic origins. Thus hetalks about
in the Platonic sense of
, and heconsiders art a result of the will to "express." He even usesthe word "shadow" in connection with the concrete things of the world, as did Plato in his
Allegory of the Cave
. Kahn alsosubordinates the
, and thus thinkswithin the tradition of Western metaphysics.
Although Kahn’s "faulty" thought seems based upon Platonism, Norberg-Schulz arguesthat it is not really dualistic. He explains that despite Kahn’s amateur status as aphilosopher, the architect achieves in his architecture structural wholeness by uniting
in dynamic tension."Being a practicing architect, however, Kahn did not seek to become involved in aphilosophical pursuit of perfect forms, elevating them from the imperfections of theeveryday world. Rather he wanted to discover or reveal the
directly. Thus hereally returned to the "beginning." Moreover he defined the
in terms of humaninspirations and institutions possessing order. Rather than separating the
he instead conceived the world as an integrated whole. The
donot belong to a realm of their own, but are the basic structures of the one and onlyworld. His illustrations of the notion of "beginning" clearly prove that."
What impresses Norberg-Schulz about Kahn’s work is the architect’s ability to maketimeless human values concrete in the spatial organizations of his temporal designs.Norberg-Schulz further points to Kahn’s continued programatic renewal of "theinstitutions of man" as exemplifying an architecture "founded on the general forms of man’s Being-in-the-world."
According to Norberg-Schulz, Kahn was engaged in asearch for the structure of Being parallel to Heidegger:
. . . Kahn thus takes the total Being-in-the-world as his pointof departure, and defines our human task as the uncoveringof its structure. Thereby he indeed comes close to thephilosophy of Heidegger, who was also deeply concernedwith "beginnings."
In a second essay, "Kahn, Heidegger and the Language of Architecture", Norberg-Schulz proposed to bring to fulfillment Kahn’s "immature" theory with the thought of Martin Heidegger.
Heidegger’s philosophy provides the appropriate means to furtherthe "incomplete" exegesis of Kahn’s
as well as to give to the architect’s wordssystematic depth and greater philosophical sanction. In this essay, Norberg-Schulzfocuses attention on Kahn’s various uses of the verb "to express". He claims thatKahn’s theory of "expression" is not about self-expression. In Kahn’s theory of expression Norberg-Schulz recognizes that a rudimentary "language of architecture" isbeing constructed by the architect. He, thus, examines Heidegger’s writings concerning"language", "poetry", "art" and "dwelling" in order to complete Kahn’s frustrated attemptto develop a "language of architecture".Norberg-Schulz explains that language as poetry creates concrete "existential space".
He reports how
Heidegger defined "existential space" as "the fourfold".
Heidegger’s"fourfold", an analysis of world: "earth, sky, mortals and divinities", possesses a unifieddynamic tension between structural concepts and concrete descriptions.
By creatingconcrete "existential space", language as poetry, art and architecture allow humankind"to dwell".
"To dwell" is to exist in "the basic character of Being": in "the fourfold", in"existential space". Therefore, Norberg-Schulz reminds that for Heidegger "language" is"the house of Being".
Página 2de 13 Joseph A. Burton25/02/2009http://www.tu-cottbus.de/BTU/Fak2/TheoArch/Wolke/eng/Subjects/982/Burton/burto...