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6 Ten States Standards 2004 - Chapter 30 - Design of Sewers

6 Ten States Standards 2004 - Chapter 30 - Design of Sewers

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Chapter 30 from Ten States
Chapter 30 from Ten States

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 30-1
CHAPTER 30
 
DESIGN OF SEWERS
 
31. APPROVAL OF SEWERS
 In general, the appropriate reviewing authority will approve plans for newsystems, extensions to new areas, or replacement sanitary sewers only whendesigned upon the separate basis, in which rain water from roofs, streets, andother areas, and groundwater from foundation drains, are excluded.
32. DESIGN CAPACITY AND DESIGN FLOW
 In general, sewer capacities should be designed for the estimated ultimatetributary population, except in considering parts of the systems that can be readilyincreased in capacity. Similarly, consideration should be given to the maximumanticipated capacity of institutions, industrial parks, etc. Where future relief sewers are planned, economic analysis of alternatives should accompany initial permit applications. See Paragraph 11.24.
33. DETAILS OF DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
 
33.1 Minimum Size
  No public gravity sewer conveying raw wastewater shall be less than 8inches (200 mm) in diameter.
33.2 Depth
 In general, sewers should be sufficiently deep to receive wastewater from basements and to prevent freezing. Insulation shall be provided for sewersthat cannot be placed at a depth sufficient to prevent freezing.
33.3 Buoyancy
 Buoyancy of sewers shall be considered and flotation of the pipe shall be prevented with appropriate construction where high groundwater conditions are anticipated.
33.4 Slope
 
33.41 Recommended Minimum Slopes
 All sewers shall be designed and constructed to give meanvelocities, when flowing full, of not less than 2.0 feet per second(0.6 m/s), based on Manning's formula using an "n" value of 0.013.The following are the recommended minimum slopes whichshould be provided for sewers 42 inches (1050 mm) or less;however, slopes greater than these may be desirable for construction, to control sewer gases or to maintain self-cleansingvelocities at all rates of flow within the design limits.
 
DESIGN OF SEWERS CHAPTER 30
 
30-2 Nominal Sewer SizeMinimum Slope in FeetPer 100 Feet (m/100 m)
 
8 inch (200 mm) 0.4010 inch (250 mm) 0.2812 inch (300 mm) 0.2214 inch (350 mm) 0.1715 inch (375 mm) 0.1516 inch (400 mm) 0.1418 inch (450 mm) 0.1221 inch (525 mm) 0.1024 inch (600 mm) 0.0827 inch (675 mm) 0.06730 inch (750 mm) 0.05833 inch (825 mm) 0.05236 inch (900 mm) 0.04639 inch (975 mm) 0.04142 inch (1050 mm) 0.037Sewers 48 inches (1200 mm) or larger should be designed andconstructed to give mean velocities, when flowing full, of not lessthan 3.0 feet per second (0.9 m/s), based on Manning’s formulausing an “n” value of 0.013.
33.42 Minimum Flow Depths
 Slopes which are slightly less than the recommended minimumslopes may be permitted. Such decreased slopes may beconsidered where the depth of flow will be 0.3 of the diameter or greater for design average flow. The operating authority of thesewer system will give written assurance to the appropriatereviewing authority that any additional sewer maintenancerequired by reduced slopes will be provided.
33.43 Minimize Solids Deposition
 The pipe diameter and slope shall be selected to obtain the greatest practical velocities to minimize settling problems. Oversizesewers will not be approved to justify using flatter slopes. If the proposed slope is less than the minimum slope of the smallest pipewhich can accommodate the design peak hourly flow, the actualdepths and velocities at minimum, average, and design maximumday and peak hourly flow for each design section of the sewer shall
 
DESIGN OF SEWERS CHAPTER 30
 
30-3 be calculated by the design engineer and be included with the plans.
33.44 Slope Between Manholes
 Sewers shall be laid with uniform slope between manholes.
33.45 High Velocity Protection
 Where velocities greater than 15 feet per second (4.6 m/s) areattained, special provision shall be made to protect againstdisplacement by erosion and impact.
33.46 Steep Slope Protection
 Sewers on 20 percent slopes or greater shall be anchored securelywith concrete, or equal, anchors spaced as follows:a. Not over 36 feet (11 m) center to center on grades 20 percent and up to 35 percent; b. Not over 24 feet (7.3 m) center to center on grades 35 percent and up to 50 percent; andc. Not over 16 feet (4.9 m) center to center on grades 50 percent and over.
33.5 Alignment
 In general, sewers 24 inches (600 mm) or less shall be laid with straightalignment between manholes. Straight alignment shall be checked byeither using a laser beam or lamping.Curvilinear alignment of sewers larger than 24 inches (600 mm) may beconsidered on a case by case basis provided compression joints arespecified and ASTM or specific pipe manufacturers' maximum allowable pipe joint deflection limits are not exceeded. Curvilinear sewers shall belimited to simple curves which start and end at manholes. Whencurvilinear sewers are proposed, the recommended minimum slopesindicated in Paragraph 33.41 must be increased accordingly to provide aminimum velocity of 2.0 feet per second (0.6 m/s) when flowing full.
33.6 Changes in Pipe Size
 When a smaller sewer joins a large one, the invert of the larger sewer should be lowered sufficiently to maintain the same energy gradient. Anapproximate method for securing these results is to place the 0.8 depth point of both sewers at the same elevation.Sewer extensions should be designed for projected flows even when thediameter of the receiving sewer is less than the diameter of the proposedextension at a manhole constructed in accordance with Section 34 withspecial consideration of an appropriate flow channel to minimizeturbulence when there is a change in sewer size. The appropriate

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