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Serway-faughn Capitulo 5

# Serway-faughn Capitulo 5

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05/10/2014

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02/25/20091
Chapter 5Chapter 5
EnergyEnergy
Forms of EnergyForms of Energy
MechanicalMechanical
focus for nowfocus for now
chemicalchemical
electromagneticelectromagnetic
nuclearnuclear
Using Energy ConsiderationsUsing Energy Considerations
Energy can be transformed from oneEnergy can be transformed from oneform to anotherform to another
Essential to the study of physics,Essential to the study of physics,chemistry, biology, geology, astronomychemistry, biology, geology, astronomy
Can be used in place of Newton’s lawsCan be used in place of Newton’s lawsto solve certain problems more simplyto solve certain problems more simply
Work Work
The work,The work,
, done by a constant force, done by a constant forceon an object is defined as the producton an object is defined as the productof the component of the force along theof the component of the force along thedirection of displacement and thedirection of displacement and themagnitude of the displacementmagnitude of the displacement
x)cosF(W
θ
Work, cont.Work, cont.
F cos θ is theF cos θ is thecomponent of thecomponent of theforce in the directionforce in the directionof the displacementof the displacement
∆ x is the ∆ x is thedisplacementdisplacement
x)cosF(W
θ
Work, cont.Work, cont.
the time it took for the displacement tothe time it took for the displacement tooccuroccur
the velocity or acceleration of the objectthe velocity or acceleration of the object

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Units of Work Units of Work
SISI
Newton • meter = JouleNewton • meter = Joule
N • m = JN • m = J
US CustomaryUS Customary
foot • poundfoot • pound
ft • lbft • lb
– –no special nameno special name
Scalar quantityScalar quantity
The work done by a force is zero when theThe work done by a force is zero when theforce is perpendicular to the displacementforce is perpendicular to the displacement
F.cos 90F.cos 90°°= 0= 0
If there are multiple forces acting on anIf there are multiple forces acting on anobject, the total work done is the algebraicobject, the total work done is the algebraicsum of the amount of work done by eachsum of the amount of work done by eachforceforce
Work can be positive or negativeWork can be positive or negative
Positive if the force and the displacementPositive if the force and the displacementare in the same directionare in the same direction
Negative if the force and the displacementNegative if the force and the displacementare in the opposite directionare in the opposite direction
When Work is ZeroWhen Work is Zero
Displacement isDisplacement ishorizontalhorizontal
Force is verticalForce is vertical
cos 90cos 90°°= 0= 0
W = 0W = 0
Work Can Be Positive orWork Can Be Positive orNegativeNegative
Work is positiveWork is positivewhen lifting the boxwhen lifting the box
Work would beWork would benegative if loweringnegative if loweringthe boxthe box
Kinetic EnergyKinetic Energy
Energy associated with the motion of anEnergy associated with the motion of anobjectobject
Scalar quantity with the same units asScalar quantity with the same units aswork work
Work is related to kinetic energyWork is related to kinetic energy
2
mv21KE
=

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Work Work--Kinetic Energy TheoremKinetic Energy Theorem
When work is done by a net force on anWhen work is done by a net force on anobject and the only change in theobject and the only change in theobject is its speed, the work done isobject is its speed, the work done isequal to the change in the object’sequal to the change in the object’skinetic energykinetic energy
Speed will increase if work is positiveSpeed will increase if work is positive
Speed will decrease if work is negativeSpeed will decrease if work is negative
KEKEKEW
ifnet
==
Work and Kinetic EnergyWork and Kinetic Energy
An object’s kinetic An object’s kineticenergy can also beenergy can also bethought of as thethought of as theamount of work theamount of work themoving object couldmoving object coulddo in coming to restdo in coming to rest
The moving hammerThe moving hammerhas kinetic energyhas kinetic energyand can do work onand can do work onthe nailthe nail
Potential EnergyPotential Energy
Potential energy is associated with thePotential energy is associated with theposition of the object within someposition of the object within somesystemsystem
Potential energy is a property of thePotential energy is a property of thesystem, not the objectsystem, not the object
A system is a collection of objects or A system is a collection of objects orparticles interacting via forces or processesparticles interacting via forces or processesthat are internal to the systemthat are internal to the system
Gravitational Potential EnergyGravitational Potential Energy
Gravitational Potential Energy is theGravitational Potential Energy is theenergy associated with the relativeenergy associated with the relativeposition of an object in space near theposition of an object in space near theEarth’s surfaceEarth’s surface
Objects interact with the earth through theObjects interact with the earth through thegravitational forcegravitational force
Actually the potential energy of the earth Actually the potential energy of the earth--object systemobject system
Work and GravitationalWork and GravitationalPotential EnergyPotential Energy
PE = mgyPE = mgy
Units of PotentialUnits of PotentialEnergy are the sameEnergy are the sameas those of Work as those of Work and Kinetic Energyand Kinetic Energy
figravity
PEPEW
=
Reference Levels forReference Levels forGravitational Potential EnergyGravitational Potential Energy
A location where the gravitational potential A location where the gravitational potentialenergy is zero must be chosen for eachenergy is zero must be chosen for eachproblemproblem
The choice is arbitrary since the change in theThe choice is arbitrary since the change in thepotential energy is the important quantitypotential energy is the important quantity
Choose a convenient location for the zeroChoose a convenient location for the zeroreference heightreference height
often the Earth’s surfaceoften the Earth’s surface
may be some other point suggested by the problemmay be some other point suggested by the problem