Originally applied to military and religiousexpeditions
organized in Western Europe andintended to take back from and defendagainst
Islam the Holy Places of Palestine andnearby Syriathe term was later extended
to all wars wagedagainst "infidels" and even to anyundertaking carried out in
the name of aworthy or supposedly worthy cause; naturallythese extensions of
meaning are not part ofour present concern.
The first Crusade (1096-99), led to theestablishment around Jerusalem, Tripoli,Antioch and Edessa of four States constituting (and later including Cyprus, then the LatinEmpire of Constantinople) the Latin East,which from then on until the recapture of itslast citadel Acre by the Muslims in 1291