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belajar bahasa kedua

belajar bahasa kedua

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Published by: hasmadi.hamdan on Mar 02, 2009
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Trends in Second-Language-
Ac q u is itio nR e s e a r c h
K E N JI
H A K U T A
H E R L IN D A
C A N C IN O
H aruardU n iv e r s ity

R ecent concern w ith bilingual educationh a s led toa n increased interesti n under- standing the processo fs e c o n d -la n g u a g e a c q u is itio n . I n th is a r tic le K e n j i H a k u t a and Herlinda Cancino presentacritical, historical overview of research on second- la n g u a g e

a c q u is itio n .
I n
th is
a c c o u n t
th e
a u th o r s
o u tlin e
fo u r
a n a ly tic a l
u p -
p r o a c h e s -c o n tr a s tiv e ,
error, perform ance,a n dd i s c o u r s e . a n n l y s i s - t r a c e
th e shifts
am ong
these approaches, and
d e m o n s tr a te
th e a d v a n ta g e sa n d
d is a d v a n ta g e s
o f
each. They also show
h o w
t h e d ifle r e n t a p p r o a c h e s r e fle c t c h a n g in g
c o n c e p tio n s
of la n g u a g ea n d
the nature of learners. T h e authors give special em phasis to the
in flu e n c e
o f
first-language-acquisitionresearch on studies of
second-language ac-
q u is itio n ,a n d they speculate on future research trends.
L a n g u a g e p ro v id e s o n e of
th e m o st re a d ily
accessible w indow s into
th e
n a tu re
o f
th e
hum an
m in d . H o w
c h ild re n
a c q u ire th is c o m p le x sy stem
w ith
s u c h
a p

parent ease continues to fascinate the studento f hum an language. T h e last quarter o fa c e n tu ry in p a rtic u la r h a s w itn essed a q u a lita tiv e le a p in o u r k n o w le d g e of th e la n g u a g e -a c q u is itio n

p ro c e ss in y o u n g c h ild re n .I n recent years researchers have b e g u n e x te n d in g th e ir sc o p e of in q u iry in to th e p ro b le m of s e c o n d -la n g u a g e a c q u i- s itio n . T h e m o tiv a tio n u n d e rly in g th is n e w

e n d e a v o ri stw o -fo ld : firs t, it p ro v id e s an added perspectiveo n hum an language, and second, interest in second-language te a c h in g a n d b ilin g u a l e d u c a tio n h a s re s u lte d in a g re a te r n e e dt ou n d e rs ta n d th e m e c h a n is m s u n d e rly in g

s e c o n d -la n g u a g e a c q u is itio n . T h e
focus of

a n a ly s is h a s u n d e rg o n e d is tin c t s h ifts in p e rs p e c tiv e a s a f u n c tio n of o u r c h a n g in g c o n c e p tu a l- iz a tio n so f

w h a t la n g u a g e
i sa n d
also w hat
th e
le a rn e r
b rin g s
t o
th e
le a rn in g
s itu a tio n .
T o a n tic ip a te th e v a rio u s a p p ro a c h e st o b e re v ie w e d in th is p a p e r, le t u s e n te r-
W e w o u ld lik et o t,h a n k H e le n T a g e r F lu s b e r g , B e lla D e P a u la , S te v e n P in k e r , a n d E lle n W in n e r
fo rh e lp fu l c o n im e n tso n
this paper. W e especially
th a n k
Roger Brown
and Bruce Fraser for ex-
tensive w ritten
com m ents. P reparation
of this m anuscript was ;upported
i n
p a r tb y
Grant BNS
73-09150 from
th e N a tio n a l S c ie n c e F o u n d a tio n to D r.R oger B row n.
Haruard EducationalR e v ie w
V o l.4 7
N o.3
A ugust19Y 7
294
T rendsin Second Language
H A K U T AA N D C A N C IN O
tain som e ways in w hich
one m ight proceedi n
a n a ly z in g
the process of second-
language acquisition. A ssum e that we had in our possession a year-long record

o f all the conversationso f a second-language learner since initial exposure to th e tar- g e t l a n g u a g e , O n e w a y t o a n a l y z e t h e d a t a , if w e k n e w

the gram m ars of both
th e

n a tiv e a n d th e ta rg e t la n g u a g e s, w o u ld b e th ro u g h ac o n tr a s tiv e analysis of the tw o la n g u a g e s tru c tu re s . W h e r e th e tw o la n g u a g e s d iffe r w e w o u ld e x p e c t e rro rs , a n d o u r p re d ic tio n s c o u ld b e te s te d a g a in s t th e a c q u is itio n d a ta . A n o th e r w ayt op r@ ceed in the analysis w ould

b e to c a ta lo g u e a ll th e s y s te m a tic d e v ia tio n -th e
e r -
ro rs -in
the learner\u2019s speech from

th e ta rg e t-la n g u a g e n o rm . T h e s e d e v ia tio n s ,o r e rro rs , c o u ld b e c la ssifie d i n t o w h a te v e r c a te g o rie s o u r th e o ry m ig h t d ic ta te .I f w e w an t m o re specific in fo rm atio n

th a n
th a t p ro v id e d
by error data, we could
e x -
a m in e perform anceo n p a rtic u la r lin g u is tic s tru c tu re s

(such as negatives and in- terrogatives) and lookfo r both the distributional characteristics of errors and cor- rect usage of those structures. O r, w e could look not just at linguistic structure but a td i s c o u r s estru c tu re

as w e ll.F o r e x a m p le , w e c o u ld
a s k
h o w
lin g u is tic fo rm s
m ig h t b e d e riv e d fro m
the w ay in w hich they are used in conversation.
O ver
th e
p a s t
th irty
y e a rs
second-language-acquisitionre s e a rc h
h a s
p a s s e d
th ro u g h
th e fo u r p h a se s o u tlin e d
a b o v e : contrastive analysis, error analysis, per-
form ancea n a ly s is ,a n d discourse analysis.
(F o ra re v ie w
of e a rlie r s tu d ie si n th is
area see M cL auglilin, 1977.) In
this article, we sum m arize

and critically review eacho f these research traditions.I n addition, we discuss reasons for the transition fro m o n e fo rmo fa n a ly sist o th e n e x t, p a rtic u la rly th a t d u et o th e in flu e n c e o 5 firs t- la n g u a g e -a c q u is itio n re s e a rc h .

C o n tr a stiv e A n a ly sis
F ro m
the early
1940s to the
1 9 6 0 s, te a c h e rso f fo re ig n la n g u a g e s w e re o p tim is tic
th a t th e p ro b le m s of la n g u a g e te a c h in g c o u ld
be approached
scien tifically , w ith
the use
o f
m e th o d s d e riv e d
fro m
structural linguistics. Essentially, the goal of
s tr u c tu r a l lin g u is tic s w a st o
c h a ra c te riz e
the syntactic structure
o f
sentences in
term s
o f
th e ir
g ra m m a tic a l
c a te g o rie s
a n d
s u rfa c e
arrangem ents.
F rie s (1 9 4 5 /
1 9 7 2 ) w a s e x p tic it a b o u t th e im p lic a tio n so fth is a p p ro a c h
fo r fo re ig n
la n g u a g e
te a c h in g . H e c la im e d
th a t \u201c th e m ost effective m aterials are those th at are based
u p o n a scientific descriptiono f
th e la n g u a g e
t o be learned, carefully com pared
w ith a p a ra lle l d e s c rip tio no fth e n a tiv e la n g u a g e of th e le a rn e r\u201d
(p . 9 ).
C laim s like Fries\u2019s w ere reinforced
by inform al observationso f learners\u2019 syste-
m atic errors, w hich seem ed to reflect the structureo f

t h e i r n a t i v e l a n g u a g e . ,4 1 6 th o u g h m a n yo fth e e rro rs w e re p h o n o lo g ic a l in n a tu re , a s illu s tra te d b y th e n a tiv e speaker of Japanese

w ho
c o n s is te n tly
f a i l st o
d is tin g u is h
b e tw e e n
/r /
a n d
/ l / ,
others clearly
o rig in a te d
at the
s y n ta c tic a n d
m o rp h o lo g ic a l
le v e ls . C o n s id e r
a
native speaker of Spanish w ho says \u201cIs the houseo f my m other.\u201d
T he Spanish
e q u iv a le n t w o u ld b e\u201cE s la casa dem i m adre.\u201d
T h e E n g lis h u tte ra n c e
c o n ta in s
tw o errors, w hose sources can be clearly traced
b a c k
to S p a n is h . S p a n is h
a llo w s
subject pronounst ob e d e le te d . W h e n
this rule is transferred

to E n g lis h , \u201c T h i s is\u201d or \u201cIt is\u201d sim ply becom es \u201cIs.\u201d A lso, S panish uses th e possessed-possessororder; thus w e have \u201cthe house of m y m other\u201d (\u201cla casa de m i m adre\u201d).I tappeared, then,

2 9 5
th a t th e fo re ig n -la n g u a g e le a rn e r\u2019s d iffic u ltie s c o u ld
b e p re d ic te d
fro m
the differ-
ences in
the structures of the
tw ola n g u a g e s . C o n tra s tiv e
analysis was the label
g iv e n to th is c o m p a ra tiv e a p p ro a c h .
P rin c ip le s su c h a s im ita tio n , p o sitiv e a n d n e g a tiv e tra n s fe r, re in fo rc e m e n t, a n d
h a b it s tre n g th w e re b o rro w e d fro m
the academ ic psychology of learning and in-
corporated into the contrastive analysis view
o f s e c o n d -la n g u a g e a c q u is itio n . P re -
s u p p o s in g
th a t
la n g u a g e
developm ent consisted
o f
th e
a c q u is itio n
of
a
s e to f
habits, errors in the second language w ere seen as the result of the first-language
h a b its in te rfe rin g
w ith the acquisition
o f the habitso f the second. In classroom
practice the principles of habit form ation and interference led to the use of pattern
d rills i n th e a u d io -lin g u a l m e th o d
o f second-language learning. O n

the basis of c o n tra s tiv e a n a ly s is , d iffic u lt p a tte rn s w e re p re d ic te d a n d c o n s e q u e n tly e m p h a s iz e d i n

the drills. For
the interested
r e a d e r
th e
a s s u m p tio n s u n d e rly in g
th e
a u d io -
lin g u a l m e th o d a r e c a re fu lly e x a m in e d
a n d e v a lu a te d
in an
im p o rta n t b o o k
b y
R iv e rs (1 9 6 4 ).
T h e c o m p a ris o n of th e s tru c tu re s of la n g u a g e s c o n tin u e st ob e
a respectable
a c tiv ity w ith in c o n tra s tiv e lin g u is tic s

(A la tis , 1 9 6 8 ) a n d h a s c o m e to b e c o n d u c te d w ith in th e fram ew ork of tran sfo rm atio n al generative g ram m ar. Its statu s as a psy- c h o lo g ic a l a p p r o a c h

to th e in v e s tig a tio n
of
th e
second-language-acquisitionp ro -

cess, how ever, fell in to disrepute for several reasons. O n e \u2019reason w as th e u n fo rtu n - a t e a s s o c ia tio n o f c o n tra s tiv e a n a ly s is w ith th e b e h a v io ris t v ie w of la n g u a g e a c q u i- s itio n , a n

account whose theoretical adequacy
cam e
t o
b e s e rio u s ly q u e s tio n e d ,
m ost n o ta b lyb y C h o m sk y
(1 9 5 9 ). I n o u r v ie w

a m ore devastating reason w as that contrastive analysis fared quite poorly once researchers, insteado fre ly in g o n a n - e c d o ta l im p re s s io n s fro m

the classroom , began collecting data in m ore system atic
w ays
(O lle r&Richards, 1973).From
these data, analyses of learners\u2019 errors soon
show ed
that a large proportion were not predictable
o n
the basis of contrastive
analysis. In fact,m any of these errors, such as rule sim plification
(as in \u201cM om m y
e a t ta p io c a \u201d ) a n d o v e r-g e n e ra liz a tio n

(as in \u201c H e w rited m e a letter\u201d) e x h ib ite d a s trik in g re s e m b la n c et oth o se m a d eb y c h ild re n a c q u irin g a first la n g u a g e . M o re - over, learners d id not in fact m ake all the errors predicted by contrastive analysis (N ic k e l, 1 9 7 1 ; S to c k w e ll, B o w e n ,&M artin, 1965). W hen

the inadequacy
of con-
trastive analysis as a predictive m odel becam e apparent, W ardhaugh
(1970) drew
th e
u s e fu l d is tin c tio n
b e tw e e n
stro n g
and weak versionso f

the approach. T he strong version claim ed to predict errors, w hile the w eak version sim p lya c c o u n te d for errors that occurred. C ontrastive analysis survives onlyi n its w eak form

w ith

a n o b v io u s s h o rtc o m in g : it g iv e s a n in c o m p le te re p re s e n ta tio n of th e s e c o n d -la n - guage-acquisition process since it can account only for som e, not all, of th e errors. R ecently it has been incorporated into the m ore general approacho f error analysis (Schum ann

&
S te n s o n ,
1 9 7 5 ). w h ic h
a n a ly z e s a ll
system atic
d e v ia tio n s
o f
th e
le a rn e r\u2019s la n g u a g efro m
th e ta rg e t-la n g u a g e n o rm s,
E rro rA n a ly s is
C h o m sk y \u2019s (1 9 5 7 ) fo rm u la tio n
o f languagea s a powerful set of transform ational
2 9 6

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