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Universitatea de Stat din Moldova
Cu titlu de manuscris
C.Z.U.: 54:574 (478) (043.3)
628.47 (478) (043.3)
\u0162ugui Tatiana
Analiza\u015fi evaluarea gazelor cu efect de ser\u0103,
provenite din depozitele de de\u015feuri menajere
11.00.11 \u2013 protec\u0163ia mediului ambiant
\u015fi folosirea ra\u0163ional\u0103 a resurselor naturale
Tez\u0103 de doctor \u00een chimie
Conduc\u0103tor\u015ftiin\u0163ific: Duca Gheorghe, acad., prof., dr. hab. \u00een chimie
Autorul: \u0162ugui Tatiana
Chi\u015fin\u0103u, 2007
1
CUPRINS

INTRODUCERE................................................................................................................................. 3
CAPITOLUL I. MANAGEMENTUL DE\u015eEURILOR (analiza situa\u0163iei actuale)............................ 11
I.1. Gestionarea de\u015feurilor \u00een Republica Moldova............................................................................ 11
I.2. Managementul de\u015feurilor la nivel interna\u0163ional.......................................................................... 14
I.3. Clasificarea de\u015feurilor................................................................................................................. 18
I.4. Propriet\u0103\u0163ile de\u015feurilor menajere solide (DMS)......................................................................... 19
I.5. Cadrul institu\u0163ional...................................................................................................................... 23
I.6. Cadrul legislativ\u015fi normativ al gestion\u0103rii de\u015feurilor................................................................ 26
I.7. Legisla\u0163ia UE privind managementul de\u015feurilor......................................................................... 30
I.8. Concep\u0163ia \u00eenhum\u0103rii sanitare a DMS.......................................................................................... 36
I.9. Impactul global al de\u015feurilor asupra schimb\u0103rilor climaterice................................................... 39
I.10. Procesele microbiologice\u015fi chimice desf\u0103\u015furate \u00een corpul depozitelor de DMS..................... 40
CAPITOLUL II. METODE DE CERCETARE\u015eI REACTIVE...................................................... 46
II.1. Metodologia IPCC privind estimarea emisiilor de CH4 de la depozitele de DMS.................... 46
II.1.1. Metoda IPCC utilizat\u0103 \u00een mod implicit (Default method \u2013 Tier 1)................................. 47

II.1.2. Metoda IPCC de descompunere de ordinul \u00eent\u00eei, (First Order Decay Method).............. 49
II.2. Metodologia efectu\u0103rii studiului compozi\u0163iei morfologice a DMS........................................... 52

II.2.1. Metoda de analiz\u0103 a compozi\u0163iei morfologice a DMS................................................... 52
II.2.2. Clasificarea componentelor DMS.................................................................................... 54
II.3. Estimarea compozi\u0163iei chimice a de\u015feurilor menajere solide.................................................... 59

II.4. Echipamentele\u015fi reactivele utilizate la prelevarea\u015fi analiza probelor de biogaz..................... 60

II.4.1. Gazoanalizatorul portativ \u201eGIAM \u2013 305\u201d........................................................................ 61 II.4.2. Cromatograful \u201eGAZHROM-3101\u201d................................................................................ 62 II.4.3. Analizatorul \u201eGAZOTEST\u201d TU 4215-001-17763771-95.............................................. 62 II.4.4. Cuptorul microbiologic BINDER GmbH, Seria BD/FD (E2)........................................ 62 II.4.5. Reactivele utilizate la analiza probelor de biogaz............................................................ 63 II.4.6. Executarea sondelor de prelevare a probelor................................................................... 63

II.5. Procedura de calculare a emisiilor de CH4............................................................................... 64 CAPITOLUL III. PARTEA EXPERIMENTAL\u0102............................................................................ 66 III.1. Determinarea volumelor de DMS............................................................................................ 66 III.2. Evaluarea caracteristicilor depozitelor de de\u015feuri menajere solide........................................ 68 III.3. Caracteristica depozitelor de DMS selectate pentru analiza componen\u0163ilor biogazului......... 72 III.4. Analiza compozi\u0163iei morfologice a DMS................................................................................ 74 III.5. Estimarea compozi\u0163iei chimice a DMS.................................................................................... 81 III.6. Analiza componen\u0163ilor biogazului, provenit din depozitele de DMS...................................... 82

2

CAPITOLUL IV. DETERMINAREA DATELOR DE ACTIVITATE\u015eI A COEFICIEN\u0162ILOR DE EMISIE NA\u0162IONALI....................................................................................................................... 93 IV.1. Determinarea datelor de activitate.......................................................................................... 93

IV.1.1. MSWT \u2013 cantitatea total\u0103 de DMS generate.................................................................. 93
IV.1.2. MSWF \u2013frac\u0163ia de DMS eliminate la depozite.............................................................. 93
IV.2. Determinarea coeficien\u0163ilor na\u0163ionali de emisie....................................................................... 95

IV.2.1. Factorul de corec\u0163ie a metanului (MCF)......................................................................... 95
IV.2.2. Carbonul Organic Degradabil (DOC)............................................................................. 97
IV.2.3. Frac\u0163ia DOC disimilat (DOCF)....................................................................................... 99
IV.2.4. Frac\u0163ia CH4 \u00een biogaz (F)............................................................................................. 100
IV.3. Estimarea emisiilor de CH4 provenite din depozite de DMS................................................. 101

IV.4 Prognozarea emisiilor de CH4\u015fi propunerea scenariilor de reducere a emisilor GES............ 105
IV.5 Propuneri privind aplicarea rezultatelor ob\u0163inute.................................................................... 107

IV.4.1. Extragerea biogazului\u015fi arderea lui direct\u0103 \u00een tor\u0163e.................................................... 109
IV.4.2. Extragerea biogazului\u015fi utilizarea lui \u00een scopul asigur\u0103rii independen\u0163ei electrice\u015fi
termice a depozitului................................................................................................................. 110
IV.4.3. Extragerea biogazului\u015fi convertirea lui \u00een energie termic\u0103\u015fi electric\u0103 \u00een motoare cu
ardere intern\u0103 sau motoare cu turbin\u0103....................................................................................... 110
IV.4.4. Extragerea biogazului\u015fi utilizarea lui ca surs\u0103 de combustibil pentru transport sau
pomparea acestuia direct \u00een re\u0163eaua de gaze naturale.............................................................. 111
IV.4.5. Recuperarea biogazului de la depozitul de DMS din s. Cre\u0163oaia................................. 111

CONCLUZII\u015eI RECOMAND\u0102RI................................................................................................ 112 ADNOTARE................................................................................................................................... 114 SUMMARY.................................................................................................................................... 115 Bibliografie:..................................................................................................................................... 117 Lista abrivierilor utilizate \u00een lucrare................................................................................................ 124 ANEXE............................................................................................................................................ 125 Anexa 1: Date generale privind depozitele de de\u015feuri \u00een Republica Moldova.............................. 125 Anexa 3 : Rezultatele analizei biogazului generat la depozitul de DMS din or. B\u0103l\u0163i................... 135 Anexa 4: Rezultatele analizei biogazului generat la depozitul de DMS din s. Cre\u0163oaia................ 136 Anexa 5: Rezultatele analizei biogazului generat la depozitul de DMS din or. Str\u0103\u015feni............... 137 Anexa 6: Estimarea emisiilor de CH4 de la de\u015feurile generate \u00een or. Chi\u015fin\u0103u, \u00een baza metodei IPCC Rev\u0103zut 1996, T1............................................................................................................................. 138 Anexa 7: Estimarea emisiilor de CH4 de la de\u015feurile generate \u00een or. Chi\u015fin\u0103u, \u00een baza metodei IPCC Rev\u0103zut 1996, T2............................................................................................................................. 139

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