352
Heat and Mass Transfer

The edge facing the direction of flow is called
leading edge.

The rear edge is called the
trailing edge.

Near the leading edge of a flat plate, the boundary layer is wholly
laminar.
For a laminar

boundary layer the velocity distribution is
parabolic.

The thickness of the boundary layer
(6)
ncreases with distance from the leading edge
x,
as
more and mare fluid is slowed down by the viscous boundary, becomes unstable andbreaks into
turbulent boundary layer
over a transition region.
Laminar
4
r?nsiTurbulentboundary layer

boundary layer tlon
Y
I
1
Fig. 7.1.
Boundary layer on a flat plate.For a turbulent boundary layer, if the boundary is smooth, the roughness projections arecovered by a very thin layer which remains laminar, called
laminar sublayer.
The velocitydistribution in the turbulent boundary layer is given by
Log law of Prandtl's oneseventh powerlaw.
The
characteristics
of a boundary layer may be summarised as follows:
(i) 6
(thickness of boundary layer) increases as distance from leading edge x increases.
(ii)
6
ecreases
as
U
increases.
(iii) 6
increases as kinematic viscosity
(v)
ncreases.
1
(iv)\,q,
=
p
[f)
ence
ro
ecreases as
x
increases. However, when boundary layer becomes
I
turbulent, it shows a sudden increase and then decreases with increasing
x.
(v)
When
U
decreases in the downward direction, boundary layer growth is reduced.
(vi)
When
U
ecreases in the downward direction. flow near the boundary is further retarded.boundary layer growth is faster and is susceptible to separation.
(vii)
The various characteristics of the boundary layer on flat plate
(e.g..
variation of
6,
$
orforce
F)
re governed by inertial and viscous forces: hence they are functions of either
ux
UL

r
.
v
v
I
(viii)
1f
UI
<
5
x
lo5
...
boundary layer is
laminar
(velocity distribution is
parabolic).
v
ux
If

5
x
10'
...
boundary layer is
turbulent on
that portion (velocity distribution follows
v
Log law or a power law).
(ir)
Critical value ofat which boundary layer changes from laminar to turbulent depends
v
on
:

urbulence in ambient flow,Forced Convection
353

urface roughness,

ressure gradient,

late curvature, and

emperature difference between fluid and bounary.
(x)
Though the velocity distribution would be a parabolic curve in the laminar sublayer zone,but in view of the very small thickness we can reasonably assume that velocity distributionis linear and so the velocity gradient can
be
considered constant.Boundary layer thickness
(6)
:
The velocity within the boundary layer increases from zero at the boundary surface to thevelocity of the main stream asymptotically. Therefore, the thickness of the boundary layer isarbitrarily defined as
that distance from the boundary in which the velocity reaches 99 per centof the velocity of the free stream (u
=
0.99U). It is denoted by the symbol
6
This definition.however. nives an approximate value
of the boundary layer thickness and hence
6
is generally
"
m
*
termed as nominal thickness of the boundary layer.The boundary layer thicknpss for
greater accuracy
is defined in terms of certain mathematicalexpressions which are the metsure of the boundary layer on the flow. The commonly adopteddefinitions of the boundary layer thickness are:
1.
Displacement thickness
(6*)
2.
Momentum thickness
(0)
3.
Energy thickness
(6,).
Displacement thickness
(a*)
:
The
displacement thickness
can be defined as follws:
"It is the distance, measured perpendicular to the boundby, by whiis displaced on account of formation of boundary layer."
Or
"It is an additional "wall thickness" that would have to be added to compensate for thereduction in jlow rate on accounibf boundary layer formation.
"
The displacement thickness is denoted by
6*.
Let fluid of density
p
flow past a stationary plate with velocity
U
as shown in Fig.
7.2.
Consider an elementary strip of thickness
dy
at a distance
y
from the plate.Assuming
unit width,
the mass flow per second through the elementary strip
=
oudv
.
i)
.
.
Mass flow per second through the elementary strip (unit width) if the plate were not there
=
p
U.dy
.
...(
i)
Boundary layer
___,
___,
Stationary plate
2
Fig.
7.2.
Displacement thickness.