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Heat and mass transfer R.K.Rajput

Heat and mass transfer R.K.Rajput

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350
Heat and Mass Transfer
Graetz number,
G
=
Pe
-
?
Grashoff number,
Gr
=
P~P
At
L3
p2
3.
The following similarities for testing of 'heat transfer equipment' must be ensured betweenthe model and the prototype:(i) Geometric similarity(ii) Kinematic similarity(iii) Dynamic similarity(iv) Similarity of fluid entry conditions(v) Siniilarity of boundary temperature field.
THEORETICAL QUESTIONS
1.
What is dimensional analysis?
2.
What are the uses of dimensional analysis?
3.
Explain the term dimensional homogeneity.
4.
Describe the Rayleigh's method for dimensional analysis.
5.
Describe Buckingham's method or x-theorem to formulate a dimensionally homogeneous equationbetween the various physical quantities effecting a certain phenomenon.
6.
What are dimensionless numbers?
7.
Discuss the physical significance of the following dimensionless number
Re, Nu,
Pr,
St,
Gr.
8.
Show by dimensional analysis for forced convection, Nu
=
(I
(Re,
Pr)
9.
=
(I
(Pr, Gr)10.
What are the advantages and limitations of 'Dimensional analysis'
?
11.
What do you mean by 'Characteristic length or Equivalent diameter'
?
12.
For testing of 'heat transfer equipment' which of the similarities must be ensured between the model andthe prototype
?
'4
Forced Convection
7.1.
Laminarflow over aflat plate:
Introduction to boundary layer
-
Boundary layer definitions andcharacteristics
-
Momentum equation for hydrodynamic boundary layer over a flat plate
-
Blasius solutionfor laminar boundary layer flows
-
Von Karman integral momentum equation (Approximate hydrodynamicboundary layer analysis)
-
Thermal boundary layer
-
Energy equation of thermal boundary layer over aflat plate
-
Integral energy equation (Approximate solution of energy equation).
7.2.
Laminar tube flow:
Development of boundary layer
-
Velocity distribution
-
Temperature distribution,
7.3.
Turbulent flowover aflat plate;
Turbulent boundary layer
-
Total drag due to laminar and turbulent layers
-
Reynoldsanalogy.
7.4
Turbulent tubeflow.
7.5
Empirical correlations
-
Typical Examples
-
Highlights -TheoreticalQuestions
-
Unsolved Examples.
A. LAMINAR FLOW
7.1. LAMINAR FLOW OVER A FLAT PLATE7.1.1. Introduction
to
Boundary Layer
The concept of boundary layer was first introduced by
L.
Prandtl in
1904
and since then
it
has been applied to several fluid flow problems.When a real fluid (viscous fluid) flows past a stationary solid boundary, a layer of fluid
'
which comes in contact with the boundary surface, adheres to it (on account of viscosity) andcondition of no slip occurs (The
no-slip
condition implies that the velocity of fluid at a solidboundary must be same as that of boundary itself). Thus the layer of fluid which cannot slipaway from the boundary surface undergoes retardation; this retarded layer further causes retardationfor the adjacetit layers of the fluid, thereby developing a small region in the immediate vicinityof the boundary surface in which the velocity of the flowing fluid increases rapidly from
zero
atthe boundary surface and approaches the velocity of main stream. The
layer adjacent to theboundary is known as boundary layer. Boundary layer is formed whenever there is relative motionbetween the boundary and the fluid.
Since
zo
=
,
he fluid exerts a shear stress on theboundary and boundary exerts an equal and opposite force on fluid known as the
shear resistance.
According to boundary layer theory the extensive fluid medium around bodies moving influids can be divided into following two regions:
(i)
A thin layer adjoining the boundary called the
boundary layer
where the
viscous sheartakes place.(ii)
A
region outside the boundary layer where the flow behaviour is quite like that of an
idealfluid and the potentialflow theory is applicable.
7.1.1.1 Boundary Layer Definitions and Characteristics
Consider the boundary layer formed on a flat plate kept parallel to flow of fluid of velocity
U
(Fig.
7.1)
(Though the growth of a boundary layer depends upon the
body shape,
flow overa flat plate aligned in the direction of flow is considered, since most of the flow surface can be
approximated to a Jlat plate and for simplicity).

352
Heat and Mass Transfer
-
The edge facing the direction of flow is called
-
The rear edge is called the
trailing edge.
-
Near the leading edge of a flat plate, the boundary layer is wholly
laminar.
For a laminar
-
boundary layer the velocity distribution is
parabolic.
-
The thickness of the boundary layer
(6)
ncreases with distance from the leading edge
x,
as
more and mare fluid is slowed down by the viscous boundary, becomes unstable andbreaks into
turbulent boundary layer
over a transition region.
Laminar
--4
r?nsi-Turbulentboundary layer
-
boundary layer tlon
Y
I
1
Fig. 7.1.
Boundary layer on a flat plate.For a turbulent boundary layer, if the boundary is smooth, the roughness projections arecovered by a very thin layer which remains laminar, called
laminar sublayer.
The velocitydistribution in the turbulent boundary layer is given by
Log law of Prandtl's one-seventh powerlaw.
The
characteristics
of a boundary layer may be summarised as follows:
(i) 6
(thickness of boundary layer) increases as distance from leading edge x increases.
(ii)
6
ecreases
as
U
increases.
(iii) 6
increases as kinematic viscosity
(v)
ncreases.
1
(iv)\,q,
=
p
[f)
ence
ro
ecreases as
x
increases. However, when boundary layer becomes
I
turbulent, it shows a sudden increase and then decreases with increasing
x.
(v)
When
U
decreases in the downward direction, boundary layer growth is reduced.
(vi)
When
U
ecreases in the downward direction. flow near the boundary is further retarded.boundary layer growth is faster and is susceptible to separation.
(vii)
The various characteristics of the boundary layer on flat plate
(e.g..
variation of
6,
\$
orforce
F)
re governed by inertial and viscous forces: hence they are functions of either
ux
UL
-
r
-.
v
v
I
(viii)
1f
UI
<
5
x
lo5
...
boundary layer is
laminar
(velocity distribution is
parabolic).
v
ux
If
-
5
x
10'
...
boundary layer is
turbulent on
that portion (velocity distribution follows
v
Log law or a power law).
(ir)
Critical value ofat which boundary layer changes from laminar to turbulent depends
v
on
:
-
urbulence in ambient flow,Forced Convection
353
-
urface roughness,
-
-
late curvature, and
-
emperature difference between fluid and bounary.
(x)
Though the velocity distribution would be a parabolic curve in the laminar sub-layer zone,but in view of the very small thickness we can reasonably assume that velocity distributionis linear and so the velocity gradient can
be
considered constant.Boundary layer thickness
(6)
:
The velocity within the boundary layer increases from zero at the boundary surface to thevelocity of the main stream asymptotically. Therefore, the thickness of the boundary layer isarbitrarily defined as
that distance from the boundary in which the velocity reaches 99 per centof the velocity of the free stream (u
=
0.99U). It is denoted by the symbol
6
This definition.however. nives an approximate value
of the boundary layer thickness and hence
6
is generally
"
m
*
termed as nominal thickness of the boundary layer.The boundary layer thicknpss for
greater accuracy
is defined in terms of certain mathematicalexpressions which are the metsure of the boundary layer on the flow. The commonly adopteddefinitions of the boundary layer thickness are:
1.
Displacement thickness
(6*)
2.
Momentum thickness
(0)
3.
Energy thickness
(6,).
Displacement thickness
(a*)
:
The
displacement thickness
can be defined as follws:
"It is the distance, measured perpendicular to the boundby, by whiis displaced on account of formation of boundary layer."
Or
"It is an additional "wall thickness" that would have to be added to compensate for thereduction in jlow rate on accounibf boundary layer formation.
"
The displacement thickness is denoted by
6*.
Let fluid of density
p
flow past a stationary plate with velocity
U
as shown in Fig.
7.2.
Consider an elementary strip of thickness
dy
at a distance
y
from the plate.Assuming
unit width,
the mass flow per second through the elementary strip
=
oudv
.
i)
.
.
Mass flow per second through the elementary strip (unit width) if the plate were not there
=
p
U.dy
.
...(
i)
Boundary layer
___,
___,
Stationary plate
2
Fig.
7.2.
Displacement thickness.

Forced Convectioneat and
Mass
Transfer
Energy thickness is
defined as
the distance, measured perpendicular to the boundary of thesolid body, by which the boundary should be displaced to compensate for the reduction in K,E.of the flowing fluid on account of boundary layer formation.
It is denoted by
6,
Reduction of mass flow rate through the elementary strip
=
p(U-u)dy
[The difference
(U
-
u)
is called velocity of defect]Total reduction of mass flow rate due to introduction of plate
S
=JP(u-
)
d~
.
iii)
0
(if the fluid is incompressible)Let the plate is displaced by a distance
S*
and ,velocity of flow for the distance
6*
is equalto the maidfree stream velocity
(i.e.,
U).
Then, loss of the mass of the fluidlsec. flowing throughthe distance
S*
J
.,
-
7
Refer Fig.
7.2.
Mass of flow per second through the elementaIy strip
=
pudy
K.E. of this fluid inside the boundary layer
1
1
=
-
rn
u2
-
-
pudy)u2
2
K.E. of the same mass of fluid before
1
ntering the boundary Iayer
=
7
(pudy)
tJ2
Loss of K.E. through elementary strip
1
1
2
d .,.(i)
=
-
(pudy)
u2
-
(pudy)u2
=
?pu (U -u
)
y
=
pU6*
.
(iv)
Equating Eqns.
(iii)
and
(iv),
we get
6
pU6*
=j
(U- u)dy
0
A
6
1
;
Total loss of K.E. of fluid
=
I
-;
pu
(u'
-
2)
dy
-
A
0
Let
8,
=
distance by which the plate is displaced to cornpiate for the reduction in K.E.Then loss of K.E. through
6,
f fluid flowing with velocity
0
1
=
I
(pU6.)
u2
...(
i)
Equating Eqns.
(i)
nd
(ii),
we have
s
IcpusA
u2
=
J
+pu(u2-u2)dy
Momentum thickness
(0)
:
Momentum thickness is defined as the distance through which the total loss of momentumper second be equal to
if
it were passingastationary plate.
It is denoted by
8.
It may also be defined as the
distance, measured perpendicular to the boundary of the solidbody, by which the bounhry should be displaced to compensate for reduction
in
momentum ofthe flowing fluid on account of boundary layer formation.
Refer Fig.
7.2.
Mass of flow per second through the elementary strip
=
p u dy
Momentudsec of this fluid inside the boundary layer
=
p u dy
x
u
=
pu2
dy
Momentum/sec of the same mass of fluid before entering boundary layer
=
pu Udy
Loss of momentudsec
=
puUdy
-
pu2dy
=
pu (U
-
u)
dy
:
Total loss of momentudsec.
S
=J
~"(0
u)d~
.
.(i)
0
u
Example
7.1.
The velocity distribution in the boundoly layer is given by:
3
i,
here uis the velocity at a distance
y
from the plate
and
u
=
U at y
=
6,
6
being boundary layerthickness. Find:
(i)
The displacement thickness,(ii) The momentum
*
hickness,
Let
8
=
distance by which plate is displaced when the fluid is flowing with a constantvelocity
U.
Then loss of momentudsec of fluid flowing through distance
8
with a velocity
U=p8U2
.
(ii)
Equating Eqns.
(i)
and
(ii),
we have
(iii) The energy thickness, and
(iv)
The value
of
8
'
u
Y
Solution. Velocity distribution
:
-
=
11
6
(i)
The displacement thickness,
6*:
II
...(
Given)
...I
Eqn.
(7.111
The momentum thickness is useful.in
kinetics.