Heat and Mass Transfer
The edge facing the direction of flow is called
The rear edge is called the
Near the leading edge of a flat plate, the boundary layer is wholly
For a laminar
boundary layer the velocity distribution is
The thickness of the boundary layer
ncreases with distance from the leading edge
more and mare fluid is slowed down by the viscous boundary, becomes unstable andbreaks into
turbulent boundary layer
over a transition region.
boundary layer tlon
Boundary layer on a flat plate.For a turbulent boundary layer, if the boundary is smooth, the roughness projections arecovered by a very thin layer which remains laminar, called
The velocitydistribution in the turbulent boundary layer is given by
Log law of Prandtl's one-seventh powerlaw.
of a boundary layer may be summarised as follows:
(thickness of boundary layer) increases as distance from leading edge x increases.
increases as kinematic viscosity
increases. However, when boundary layer becomes
turbulent, it shows a sudden increase and then decreases with increasing
decreases in the downward direction, boundary layer growth is reduced.
ecreases in the downward direction. flow near the boundary is further retarded.boundary layer growth is faster and is susceptible to separation.
The various characteristics of the boundary layer on flat plate
re governed by inertial and viscous forces: hence they are functions of either
boundary layer is
(velocity distribution is
boundary layer is
that portion (velocity distribution follows
Log law or a power law).
Critical value ofat which boundary layer changes from laminar to turbulent depends
urbulence in ambient flow,Forced Convection
late curvature, and
emperature difference between fluid and bounary.
Though the velocity distribution would be a parabolic curve in the laminar sub-layer zone,but in view of the very small thickness we can reasonably assume that velocity distributionis linear and so the velocity gradient can
considered constant.Boundary layer thickness
The velocity within the boundary layer increases from zero at the boundary surface to thevelocity of the main stream asymptotically. Therefore, the thickness of the boundary layer isarbitrarily defined as
that distance from the boundary in which the velocity reaches 99 per centof the velocity of the free stream (u
0.99U). It is denoted by the symbol
This definition.however. nives an approximate value
of the boundary layer thickness and hence
termed as nominal thickness of the boundary layer.The boundary layer thicknpss for
is defined in terms of certain mathematicalexpressions which are the metsure of the boundary layer on the flow. The commonly adopteddefinitions of the boundary layer thickness are:
can be defined as follws:
"It is the distance, measured perpendicular to the boundby, by whiis displaced on account of formation of boundary layer."
"It is an additional "wall thickness" that would have to be added to compensate for thereduction in jlow rate on accounibf boundary layer formation.
The displacement thickness is denoted by
Let fluid of density
flow past a stationary plate with velocity
as shown in Fig.
Consider an elementary strip of thickness
at a distance
from the plate.Assuming
the mass flow per second through the elementary strip
Mass flow per second through the elementary strip (unit width) if the plate were not there