a) What is coal? How it is formed? Discuss the qualities of a good coal.b) Give the classification of coal and explain each class with example.
Coal is highly carbonaceous matter formed by the alternation of vegetable matter.Its formation can be explained by the following theories.i)Insitu theory: as per this theory coal formed in place of vegetation.ii)Drift theory: according to this theory, trees when uprooted due climating conditions, in thedeeper parts of the soil under transformation to coal due to high temperature, pressureabsence of oxygen and presence of bacteria.Ans
Coal is classified based on the carbon content. The following is sequence of conversion.Peat
Moisture content, H, O, S, N, Volatile matter Carbon content, calorific value, hardness
: Brown, fibrous, jelly like mass. It is the first stage of coalification. Uneconomical fuel. Contains80-90% of H
O. Composition C = 57%, H= 6%, O = 35%, ash 2.5 to 6%. Calorific value = 5400kcal/kg.
(Brown coal) soft, brown, colored lowest rank coal moisture content is 20 to 60%.Composition : C = 60%, O = 20%, Calorific value = 6,500 to 7,100 k.cal/kgBituminous coal (common coal) Black pr coney colored. It has laminated structure it is sub classified based on carbon content.
Bonded structure, % of C = 78 to 90%, VM = 20 to 45% , CV = 8000 to 8500 kcal/kg.
Highest rank of coal.% of C = 98 % has lowest volatile matter hardest, dense, lustrous.CV = 8650 to 8700 kg.
6. a) With a neat diagram describe the orsat gas analysis method. What are the specialprecautions to be taken in the measurement.b) Define calorific values of a fuel. Distinguish gross and net calorific value.
Orsat’s apparatus: It consists os a water – jacketed measuring burette, connected in series to aset of three absorption bulbs, through stop cocks. The other end is provided with a three way stop cock,the free end of which is further connected to a U – tube packed with glass wool (for avoiding theincoming of any smoke particles, etc.) The graduated burette is surrounded by a water jacket to keep thetemperature constant of gas during the experiment. The lower end of the burette in connected to a water reservoir by means of along rubber tubing. The absorption bulbs are usually filled with glass tubes, sothat the surface area of contact between the gas and the solution is increased.The absorption bulbs have solutions for the absorption of CO
and CO respectively. First bulb has potassium hydroxide solution (250 g KOH in 500ml of boiled distilled water), and it absorbs only CO
.The second bulb has solution of alkaline pyrogallic acid (25 g pyrogallic acid + 200g KOH in 500 ml of distilled water) and it can absorb CO
. The third bulb contains ammonium cuprous chloride(100g cuprous chloride + 125ml liquor ammonia + 375 ml of water) and it can absorb CO