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Fuels

Fuels

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Jntu mechanical and civil engineering I B.Tech engineering chemistry or Applied chemistry unit wise material with question and answers, jntu related old or previous question papers, powerpoint presentations, pdf files, word documents, and civil engineering chemistry lab manual and syllabus with course file. total materal prepared as per jntu syllabus.
Jntu mechanical and civil engineering I B.Tech engineering chemistry or Applied chemistry unit wise material with question and answers, jntu related old or previous question papers, powerpoint presentations, pdf files, word documents, and civil engineering chemistry lab manual and syllabus with course file. total materal prepared as per jntu syllabus.

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Q.No.1. a) Give the classification of fuels with suitable examples.b) What is metallurgical coke? Describe any one method of manufacturingmetallurgical coke.
Answer: a)
Fuels have been classified according to their:1. Occurrence (and preparation), and2. The state of aggregation.According to the first classification, we have:A. natural or primary fuels, which are found in nature as such e.g., wood, peat, coal, petroleum,natural gas etc.B. artificial or secondary fuels are those which are prepared from the primary fuels. For example,charcoal, coke, kerosene, diesel, petrol, coal gas, oil gas, producer gas, blast furnace gas, etc.The second classification is based upon their state of aggregation like:a) Solid fuels; b) Liquid fuels, andc) Gaseous fuels.Type of fuelNatural or primaryArtificial or secondarySolidWood, peat, lignite, dung, bituminous coal andanthracite coalChar coal, coke etc.LiquidCrude oilPetrol, diesel and various othefractions of petroleumGaseousNatural gasCoal gas, oil gas, bio gas, wate
 
gas etc. 
b)
 
Good coke for metallurgy should possess the following characteristics:
i. Purity: It should have moisture, ash, sulphur and phosphorous contents as low as possible.ii. Porosity: Coke should be porous so that oxygen easily come in contact with carbon of coke, there byhelping in complete combustion at a high rate.iii. Strength: The coke should be quite compact, hard, strong to with stand dropping abrasion as well asthe pressure of the over burden in the furnace.iv. Size: the size of metallurgical coke should be neither too big nor too small.v. Coke should be cheap and easily available.vi. Coke should burn easily.vii. The calorific value of coke should high.viii. The coke used for water gas manufacturing must be reactive to steam.
Manufacture of coke by Beehive oven:
The oven is dome-shaped structure of bricks. There are two openings, one at the top for the charging of coal and the other is one side for air supply as well as for coke discharge. These openings can be openedor clured as desired.Coal is charged through the top opening and leveled evenly to produce a layer about 0.6m deep. Someair is supplied in an the coal ignited. The volatile matter escapes or burns inside the partially closed sidedoor. Combustion is allowed to proceed in a gradually diminishing supply of air so that slowcarbonization from the top layer to the bottom, takes place completion of which takes about 3-4 days.When the carbonization is complete, the hot coke is quenched with water raked out through the sidedoor leaving the oven hot enough to start the carbonization of next change batch. They yield of coke isabout 80% of the coal charged and averages about 5-6 tons of coke per firing. To make the processeconomical many such ovens are worked in series so that the waste heat of the outgoing gases is utilizedfor heating purposes.
 
a) What is coal? How it is formed? Discuss the qualities of a good coal.b) Give the classification of coal and explain each class with example.
Ans.
 
a)
Coal is highly carbonaceous matter formed by the alternation of vegetable matter.Its formation can be explained by the following theories.i)Insitu theory: as per this theory coal formed in place of vegetation.ii)Drift theory: according to this theory, trees when uprooted due climating conditions, in thedeeper parts of the soil under transformation to coal due to high temperature, pressureabsence of oxygen and presence of bacteria.Ans
b)
Coal is classified based on the carbon content. The following is sequence of conversion.Peat
Lignite
Bituminous
Anthracite 
Moisture content, H, O, S, N, Volatile matter Carbon content, calorific value, hardness
Peat
: Brown, fibrous, jelly like mass. It is the first stage of coalification. Uneconomical fuel. Contains80-90% of H
2
O. Composition C = 57%, H= 6%, O = 35%, ash 2.5 to 6%. Calorific value = 5400kcal/kg.
Lignite:
(Brown coal) soft, brown, colored lowest rank coal moisture content is 20 to 60%.Composition : C = 60%, O = 20%, Calorific value = 6,500 to 7,100 k.cal/kgBituminous coal (common coal) Black pr coney colored. It has laminated structure it is sub classified based on carbon content.
Bituminous coal:
Bonded structure, % of C = 78 to 90%, VM = 20 to 45% , CV = 8000 to 8500 kcal/kg.
Anthracite:
Highest rank of coal.% of C = 98 % has lowest volatile matter hardest, dense, lustrous.CV = 8650 to 8700 kg.
6. a) With a neat diagram describe the orsat gas analysis method. What are the specialprecautions to be taken in the measurement.b) Define calorific values of a fuel. Distinguish gross and net calorific value.
Ans::
 
a)
Orsat’s apparatus: It consists os a water – jacketed measuring burette, connected in series to aset of three absorption bulbs, through stop cocks. The other end is provided with a three way stop cock,the free end of which is further connected to a U – tube packed with glass wool (for avoiding theincoming of any smoke particles, etc.) The graduated burette is surrounded by a water jacket to keep thetemperature constant of gas during the experiment. The lower end of the burette in connected to a water reservoir by means of along rubber tubing. The absorption bulbs are usually filled with glass tubes, sothat the surface area of contact between the gas and the solution is increased.The absorption bulbs have solutions for the absorption of CO
2
, O
2
and CO respectively. First bulb has potassium hydroxide solution (250 g KOH in 500ml of boiled distilled water), and it absorbs only CO
2
.The second bulb has solution of alkaline pyrogallic acid (25 g pyrogallic acid + 200g KOH in 500 ml of distilled water) and it can absorb CO
2
and O
2
. The third bulb contains ammonium cuprous chloride(100g cuprous chloride + 125ml liquor ammonia + 375 ml of water) and it can absorb CO
2
, O
2
and CO.
 
Orsat’s gas analysis apparatusHence, it is necessary that the flue gas it passed first through potassium hydroxide bulb, where CO
2
isabsorbed, then through alkaline pyrogallic acid bulb, when only O
2
will be absorbed (because CO
2
hasalready been removed) and finally through ammonical cuprous chloride bulb, where only CO will beabsorbed.
Working
:Step 1: To start with, the whole apparatus is thoroughly cleaned, stoppers greased and then tested for air tightness. The absorption bulbs are filled with their respective solutions to level just below their rubber connections. Their stop cocks are then closed. The jacket and leveling reservoir are filled with water.There three way stop cock is opened to the atmosphere and reservoir is raised, till the burette iscompletely filled with water and air is excluded from the burette. The three way stop cocks is nowconnected to the flue gas supply and the reservoir is lowered to draw in the gas, to be analyzed, in the burette. However, the sample gas mixed with some air present in the apparatus. So the three way stopcock is opened to the atmosphere, and the gas expelled out by raising the reservoir. This process of sucking and exhausting of gas is repeated 3-4 times, so as to expel the air from the capillary connectingtubes etc. Finally, gas is sucked in the burette and the volume of the flue gas is adjusted to 100ml atatmospheric pressure. For adjusting final volume, the three way stop cock is opened to atmosphere andthe reservoir is carefully raised, till the level of water in it is the same as in the burette, which stands at100ml mark. The three ways stop cock is then closed.Step 2: The stopper of the absorption bulb, containing caustic potash solution, is opened and all the gasis forced into the bulb by raising the water reservoir. The gas is again sent to the burette. This process isrepeated several times to ensure complete absorption of CO
2
[KOH solution]. The unabsorbed gas isfinally taken back to the burette, till the level of solution in the CO
2
absorption bulb stands at the fixedmark and then, its stop cock is closed. The levels of water in the burette and reservoir are equalized andthe volume of residual gas is noted. The decrease in volume gives the volume of CO
2
in 100ml of thegas sample.Step 3: The volumes of O
2
and CO are similarly determined by passing the remaining gas throughalkaline pyroggallic acid bulb and ammonical cuprous chloride bulb respectively. The gas remaining in burette after absorption of CO
2
, O
2
and CO is taken as nitrogen.
6.b)
Calorific value of w fuel may be defined as “the total quantity of heat liberated, when a unit mass(or volume) of a fuel is burnt completely”.Or 

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