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The appenidxes of Dissertation

The appenidxes of Dissertation

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Published by Giedrius Ivanauskas

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Apendix 1.1
Differ
ent Definitions of Interactivity in the Literatu
re
 
Name Field
 
Context*: Behavioral
 
or mediated
 
interactivity
Definition
 
Facets (either stated explicitly or implied inthe discussion)
 Alba et al. 1997 Marketing Interactive electronic home shopping (mediatedinteractivity). 
“In defining Interacti
ve Home Shopping, we conceptualize interactivity as a continuous constructcapturing the quality of two-way communicationbetween two parties.
Two facets are
response time
and
response contingency.
 
Response time 
Response contingency Bezjian-Avery,Calder, andIacobucci 1998 Advertising Advertising and marketingusing interactive systemssuch as the Internet(mediated interactivity). Interactive marketing is
“the immediate
ly iterativeprocess by which customer needs and desires areuncovered, met, modi
fied and satisfied
by the providing
firm
.
 
Core dimension
 — 
ability to control information [Hierarchical traversal versus linear presentation of information.] Burgoon et al. 2000 Informationsystems HCI, CMC, and FtFcommunication (bothbehavioral and mediatedinteractivity). None. Structural properties that can help distinguishFtF from HCI and CMC: participation, mediation,contingency, media and information richness,geographic propinquity, synchronicity,
identification,
parallelism, anthromorphism. Operationalized as
“interaction i
nvolv
ement” and
 
mutuality.
 Three properties that create the qualitativeexperience of interactivity: 
Interaction involvement 
Mutuality 
Individuation [
Interaction and mutual involvement are explored.
] Burgoon et al. 2002 Coyle and Thorson 2001 Communication Emerging communicationtechnologies and FtF(behavioral and mediatedinteractivity). Advertising
“Interactivity in
commercial W
eb sites”
(mediated). By
“interactivity” is meant,
in the media realm, someform of interdependent message exchange (based on Rafaeli 1988). Structural properties of media thatenable interdependent interaction examined in thiswork: mediation, proximity, modality, and contextrichness. Steuer
’s (1992) definition
is used:
“[T]he extent to
which users can participate in modifying the form andcontent of a mediated environment in real time.
 Dynamic qualities by which interactivity isexperienced as interactive: 
Degree of involvement 
Interaction ease 
Mutuality [Others, such as richness, spontaneity,expectedness, and desirability, may also have anin
fluenc
e.] 
Range 
Mapping 
Speed Deighton 1996 Marketing Mark 
eters’ use of the
Webto practice interactivemarketing (mediatedinteractivity). Deighton 1997 Marketing Consumer marketing usingthe
Internet;
using databasetechnologies interphasedwith Internet technologies(mediated interactivity). The term
“interacti
v
e” points to t
wo features of communication: the ability to
address
an individual, andthe ability to
 gather and remember 
the response of thatindividual.Those two features make possible a third: the ability to
address the individual once more
in a waythat takes into account his or her unique response. 
 Addressability 
and
responsiveness
make a mediuminteractive.
“A
ddr
essable” means the com
munication isdirectly addressable to individuals (not broadcast to allwho can receive
it);
responsiveness means it is alert tothe receiver
s response (it is no longer indifferent to itseffect on the receiver). 
Individual-level communication (as opposed to masscommunication) 
Degree of contingency or responsiveness 
Addressability 
Responsiveness (
continues
) 
 
Table 1 (
continued
) 
Name Field
 
Context*: Behavioral
 
or mediated
 
interactivity De
finition
 
Facets (either stated explicitly or implied inthe discussion)
 Evans and Wurster 1997 Strategy Strategy and the economics of information (mediated interactivity). Interactivity is one aspect of richness of inf 
ormation;
it refers to dialogue as opposed to monologue. 
Dialogue Heeter 2000 Communication New media with particularreference to
“designedmediated experiences”
(mediated interactivity,based on behavioralinteractivity). 
Interactivity not defined.
An interaction is an episodeor series of episodes of physical actions and reactionsof an embodied human with the world, including theenvironment and objects and beings in the w
orld;
 conceptualization of interactivity is based on this. Focusonly on
“p
h
ysical interactivity” (actio
ns and reactions that can be observed), as opposed to
perceived 
 interactivity. 
Actions followed by reactions Hoffman and Novak 1996 Liu and Shrum 2002 Marketing Computer-mediatedcommunication (mediatedinteractivity). Advertising
“The emph
asis of thecurr
ent definition is on
providing a concretepictur
e of consumers’
 on-line comm
unication”
(mediated). Use Rafaeli
’s definition:
 
“Interactivity is an exp
ressionof the extent that in a given series of communicationexchanges, any third (or later) transmission (ormessage) is related to the degree to which previousexchanges referred to even earlier transmissions.
 
“The deg
ree to which two or more communicationparties can act on each other, on the communicationmedium, and on the messages and the degree to whichsuch in
fluences a
re synchronized.
 
Feedback  
Two-way communication 
Active control 
Synchronicity. [
Note
:
“system
responsiveness is
essential” to this dimension.]
 McMillan and Hwang 2002 Advertising WWW (mediated). None. Differ
ent definitions in
the literature arereviewed. 
Direction of communication (encompassing theconcepts of responsiveness and exchange) 
User contr
ol (“the w
ay humans control computersand other ne
w media”)
 
Time Neuman 1991 Communication New media (mediatedinteractivity). 
“[T]he quality of elect
ronically mediatedcommunication characterized by increased controlover the communication process by both the senderand the receiver, either can be a microprocessor.
 
Control over the communication process Newhagen and Rafaeli 1996 Communication Communication on the Internet (mediatedinteractivity). 
“[T]he extent to which com
munication r
eflects back 
on itself, feeds on and responds to the past.
 
Feedback  
 
 
Rafaeli 1988 Communication Mediated interactivity of  
CMCs;
FtF (behavioral) interactivity also. 
“Interactivity is an exp
ression of the extent that in a given series of communication exchanges, any third (or later) transmission (or message) is related to thedegree to which previous exchanges referred to evenearlier transmissions.
” Interactivity merges speaking
with listening (Rafaeli 1997). 
Feedback  
Responsiveness
[
implied 
] Rogers 1986 Communicationtechnology New communicationtechnologies (mediatedinteractivity) 
“The c
apability of new communication systems (usuallycontaining a computer as one component) to talk back to the user, almost like an individual participating in aconversation.
 
Feedback  Steuer 1992 Communication Virtual reality (mediatedinteractivity) 
“[T]he exten
t to which users can participate inmodifying the form and content of a mediatedenvironment in r
eal time” (
p. 84).
Speed of response
isone important characteristic. Number of parameters
that can be modified (
range
) is another factorcontributing to interactivity, referring to the amount of change that can be effected on the mediatedenvironment. Finally,
mapping 
affects interactivity,referring to the way in which human actions areconnected to actions within a mediated environment. 
Speed of response 
Range
 — 
the number of parameters that can be
modified
 
Mapping
 — 
the way in which human actionsare connected to actions within a mediatedenvironment Williams, Rice,and Rogers 1988 Communication Communication systems (mediated interactivity) 
“The deg
ree to which participants in a communicationprocess have control over, and can exchange roles, intheir mutual discourse is called interactivity.
 
Control 
Exchange of roles 
Mutual discourse Zack 1993 Informationsystems Mediated interactivity of communication mediaand (behavioral) FtFinteractivity. 
No definition.
Bases discussion on interaction theoryin the sociology literature, and Rogers
s (1986)interactive model of the communication process, 
defined as one in which
 
“pa
rticipants create and shareinformation with one another in order to reach amutual understanding.
 
Channel bandwidth 
Degree of personalization or social presence 
Structural organization of interaction (e.g.,continuous feedback) 
 Note: 
 
HCI
 
=
 
human
 – 
computer
interaction;
CMC
 
=
 
computer
-mediated
communication;
 
FtF
 
=
 
face-to-face;
WWW 
=
orld
Wide W 
eb.
 
*
 
 The
original
context
 
of 
 
each
 
defi
nition is important.
For
 
an
 
explanation
 
of 
 
behavioral
 
and
mediated
interactivity 
,
 
please
 
see
the
“Background”
 
section.
 
Briefl
,
 
behavioral
 
interactivity 
 
refers
 
to
 
face-to-face
 
(nonmediated)
 
interactivity:
mediated
interactivity 
 
refers
 
to
technology-mediated
interactivity 
.
 
Source: Johnson, G. J., Bruner II, G.C, & Kumar, A. (2006). Interactivity and its facets revisited. Journal of Advertising;

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