ent Deﬁnitions of Interactivity in the Literatu
Facets (either stated explicitly or implied inthe discussion)
Alba et al. 1997 Marketing Interactive electronic home shopping (mediatedinteractivity).
“In deﬁning Interacti
ve Home Shopping, we conceptualize interactivity as a continuous constructcapturing the quality of two-way communicationbetween two parties.
Two facets are
Response contingency Bezjian-Avery,Calder, andIacobucci 1998 Advertising Advertising and marketingusing interactive systemssuch as the Internet(mediated interactivity). Interactive marketing is
ly iterativeprocess by which customer needs and desires areuncovered, met, modi
ﬁed and satisﬁed
by the providing
ability to control information [Hierarchical traversal versus linear presentation of information.] Burgoon et al. 2000 Informationsystems HCI, CMC, and FtFcommunication (bothbehavioral and mediatedinteractivity). None. Structural properties that can help distinguishFtF from HCI and CMC: participation, mediation,contingency, media and information richness,geographic propinquity, synchronicity,
parallelism, anthromorphism. Operationalized as
Three properties that create the qualitativeexperience of interactivity:
Interaction and mutual involvement are explored.
] Burgoon et al. 2002 Coyle and Thorson 2001 Communication Emerging communicationtechnologies and FtF(behavioral and mediatedinteractivity). Advertising
“interactivity” is meant,
in the media realm, someform of interdependent message exchange (based on Rafaeli 1988). Structural properties of media thatenable interdependent interaction examined in thiswork: mediation, proximity, modality, and contextrichness. Steuer
’s (1992) deﬁnition
“[T]he extent to
which users can participate in modifying the form andcontent of a mediated environment in real time.
Dynamic qualities by which interactivity isexperienced as interactive:
Degree of involvement
Mutuality [Others, such as richness, spontaneity,expectedness, and desirability, may also have anin
Speed Deighton 1996 Marketing Mark
eters’ use of the
Webto practice interactivemarketing (mediatedinteractivity). Deighton 1997 Marketing Consumer marketing usingthe
using databasetechnologies interphasedwith Internet technologies(mediated interactivity). The term
e” points to t
wo features of communication: the ability to
an individual, andthe ability to
gather and remember
the response of thatindividual.Those two features make possible a third: the ability to
address the individual once more
in a waythat takes into account his or her unique response.
make a mediuminteractive.
essable” means the com
munication isdirectly addressable to individuals (not broadcast to allwho can receive
responsiveness means it is alert tothe receiver
s response (it is no longer indifferent to itseffect on the receiver).
Individual-level communication (as opposed to masscommunication)
Degree of contingency or responsiveness