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Basic Instrumentation Measuring Devices and Basic Pid Control

Basic Instrumentation Measuring Devices and Basic Pid Control

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Basic Instrumentation Measuring Devices and Basic PID Control system
Basic Instrumentation Measuring Devices and Basic PID Control system

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Published by: v1scok on Mar 02, 2009
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Science and Reactor Fundamentals Instrumentation & Control iCNSC Technical Training Group Revision 1 – January 2003
Table of Contents
......................72.0 INTRODUCTION.........................................................................7 2.1 PRESSURE MEASUREMENT....................................................7 2.1.1 General Theory...................................................................7 2.1.2 Pressure Scales....................................................................7 2.1.3 Pressure Measurement........................................................8 2.1.4 Common Pressure Detectors...............................................92.1.5 Differential Pressure Transmitters....................................11 2.1.6 Strain Gauges....................................................................13 2.1.7 Capacitance Capsule.........................................................14 2.1.8 Impact of Operating Environment....................................152.1.9 Failures and Abnormalities...............................................162.2 FLOW MEASUREMENT...........................................................18 2.2.1 Flow Detectors..................................................................18 2.2.2 Square Root Extractor.......................................................252.2.3 Density Compensating Flow Detectors............................292.2.4 Flow Measurement Errors.................................................312.3 LEVEL MEASUREMENT.........................................................33 2.3.1 Level Measurement Basics...............................................332.3.2 Three Valve Manifold......................................................342.3.3 Open Tank Measurement..................................................362.3.4 Closed Tank Measurement...............................................362.3.5 Bubbler Level Measurement System...............................422.3.6 Effect of Temperature on Level Measurement.................442.3.7 Effect of Pressure on Level Measurement.......................472.3.8 Level Measurement System Errors..................................472.4 TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT.........................................49 2.4.1 Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD).........................492.4.2 Thermocouple (T/C)........................................................522.4.3 Thermal Wells..................................................................54 2.4.4 Thermostats.........................................................................552.5 NEUTRON FLUX MEASUREMENT.......................................59 2.5.1 Neutron Flux Detection.....................................................592.5.2 Neutron Detection Methods..............................................602.5.3 Start-up (sub-critical) Instrumentation.............................612.5.4 Fission neutron detectors..................................................632.5.5 Ion chamber neutron detectors.........................................642.5.6 In-Core Neutron Detectors...............................................702.5.7 Reactor Control at High Power.........................................772.5.8 Overlap of Neutron Detection...........................................78REVIEW QUESTIONS - EQUIPMENT.............................................81
 
Science and Reactor Fundamentals Instrumentation & Control iiCNSC Technical Training Group Revision 1 – January 2003
...................................................................893.0 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................89 3.1 BASIC CONTROL PRINCIPLES..............................................893.1.1 Feedback Control..............................................................91 3.1.2 Feedforward Control........................................................913.1.3 Summary...........................................................................92 3.2 ON/OFF CONTROL...................................................................933.2.1 Summary...........................................................................94 3.3 BASIC PROPORTIONAL CONTROL......................................953.3.1 Summary..........................................................................97 3.4 Proportional Control...................................................................983.4.1 Terminology.....................................................................98 3.4.2 Practical Proportional Control.........................................983.4.3 Summary.........................................................................1053.5 Reset of Integral Action.............................................................1063.5.1 Summary.........................................................................1093.6 RATE OR DERIVATIVE ACTION........................................1103.6.1 Summary.........................................................................1153.7 MULTIPLE CONTROL MODES.............................................1163.8 TYPICAL NEGATIVE FEEDBACK CONTROL SCHEMES1173.8.1 Level Control..................................................................117 3.8.2 Flow Control...................................................................1183.8.3 Pressure Control.............................................................1193.8.4 Temperature Control.......................................................120REVIEW QUESTIONS - CONTROL......................................122

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