# Welcome back

## Find a book, put up your feet, stay awhile

Sign in with Facebook

Sorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

or

Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more

Download

Standard view

Full view

of .

Look up keyword

Like this

Share on social networks

8Activity

×

0 of .

Results for: No results containing your search query

P. 1

HT3eChap09_52Ratings: (0)|Views: 117|Likes: 9

Published by msdhiman2003

See more

See less

https://www.scribd.com/doc/12937572/HT3eChap09-52

05/10/2014

text

original

9-26

9-35

A fluid flows through a pipe in calm ambient air. The pipe is heated electrically. The thickness of theinsulation needed to reduce the losses by 85% and the money saved during 10-h are to be determined.

Assumptions

1

Steady operating conditions exist.

2

Air is an ideal gas with constant properties.

3

The localatmospheric pressure is 1 atm.

Properties

Insulation will drop the outer surface temperature to a value close to the ambient temperature,and possible below it because of the very low sky temperature for radiation heat loss. For convenience, weuse the properties of air at 1 atm and 5

°

C (the anticipated film temperature) (Table A-15),

1-25

K003597.0
K)2735(
117350.0Pr
/sm10382.1
CW/m.02401.0

=+===×=°=

−

f

T k

β ν

Analysis

The rate of heat loss in the previousproblem was obtained to be 29,094 W. Notingthat insulation will cut down the heat losses by85%, the rate of heat loss will be

W4364W094,2915.0)85.01(

insulationno

=×=−=

QQ

&&

Asphalt

L

= 100 m

D

+ 2

t

ins

25

°

CInsulation

ε

= 0.1

T

sky

= -30

°

C

T

∞

= 0

°

C

The amount of energy and money insulation will save during a 10-h period is simply determined fromkWh3.247h)kW)(10094.2985.0(

,

=×=Δ=

t QQ

saved totalsaved

&

$22.26

==

)kWh / 09.0)($kWh3.247(=energy)of costtsaved)(UniEnergy(savedMoney
The characteristic length in this case is the outer diameter of the insulated pipe,where

t

insulinsulc

t t D L

23.02

+=+=

insul

is the thickness of insulation in m. Then the problem can beformulated for

T

s

and

t

insul

as follows:)7350.0(
) /sm10382.1(
)23.0(K])273)[(K003597.0)(m/s81.9(
Pr)(

2253-1223

−∞

×+−=−=

insulscs

t T LT T g
Ra

ν β

( )

[ ]

( )

[ ]

227 / 816 / 96 / 1227 / 816 / 96 / 1

7350.0 / 559.01
387.06.0Pr / 559.01
387.06.0

⎪⎭⎪⎬⎫⎪⎩⎪⎨⎧++=⎪⎭⎪⎬⎫⎪⎩⎪⎨⎧++=

Ra Ra Nu

m))(10023.0(
CW/m.02401.0

0

insulscc

t L D A
Nu L Nu Lk h

+==°==

π π

The total rate of heat loss from the outer surface of the insulated pipe by convection and radiation becomes

])K27330()[.KW/m1067.5()1.0(+)273(4364
)()(

44428
44

+−−×−=
−+−=+=

−∞

ssss
surr ssssrad conv

T AT hA
T T AT T hAQQQ

σ ε

&&&

In steady operation, the heat lost by the side surfaces of the pipe must be equal to the heat lost from theexposed surface of the insulation by convection and radiation, which must be equal to the heat conductedthrough the insulation. Therefore,

]3.0 / )23.0ln[(
K)m)(298C)(100W/m.035.0(2
W4364 ) / ln()(2

tank

insulsosinsulation

t T D DT T kLQQ

+−°=→−==

π π

&&

The solution of all of the equations above simultaneously using an equation solver gives

T

s

= 281.5 K =8.5

°

C and

t

insul

=

0.013 m

=

1.3 cm

.Note that the film temperature is (8.5+0)/2 = 4.25

°

C which is very close to the assumed value of 5

°

C. Therefore, there is no need to repeat the calculations using properties at this new film temperature.

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL

. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers andeducators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

9-27

9-36E

An industrial furnace that resembles a horizontal cylindrical enclosure whose end surfaces are wellinsulated. The highest allowable surface temperature of the furnace and the annual cost of this loss to theplant are to be determined.

Assumptions

1

Steady operating conditions exist.

2

Airis an ideal gas with constant properties.

3

The localatmospheric pressure is 1 atm.

L

= 13 ft

Furnace

ε

= 0.1Air

T

∞

= 75

°

F

D

= 8 ft

Properties

The properties of air at 1 atm and theanticipated film temperature of (

T

s

+

T

∞

)/2 =(140+75)/2=107.5

°

F are (Table A-15)

1-23

R001762.0
R)4605.107(
117249.0Pr
/sft101852.0
FBtu/h.ft.01546.0

=+===×=°=

−

f

T k

β ν

Analysis

The solution of this problem requires a trial-and-error approach since the determination of theRayleigh number and thus the Nusselt number depends on the surface temperature which is unknown. Westart the solution process by “guessing” the surface temperature to be 140

°

F for the evaluation of theproperties and

h

. We will check the accuracy of this guess later and repeat the calculations if necessary. Thecharacteristic length in this case is the outer diameter of the furnace, ft.8

==

D L

c

Then,

102233-1223

10991.3)7249.0(
) /sft101852.0(
)ft8)(R75140)(R001762.0)(ft/s2.32(
Pr)(

×=×−=−=

−∞

ν β

DT T g
Ra

s

( )

[ ]

( )

[ ]

8.3767249.0 / 559.01
)10991.3(387.0
6.0Pr / 559.01
387.06.0

227 / 816 / 96 / 110
227 / 816 / 96 / 1

=⎪⎭⎪⎬⎫⎪⎩⎪⎨⎧+×+=⎪⎭⎪⎬⎫⎪⎩⎪⎨⎧++=

Ra Nu

22

ft7.326)ft13)(ft8(
F.Btu/h.ft7287.0)8.376(
ft8FBtu/h.ft.01546.0

===°=°==

π π

DL A Nu Dk h

s

The total rate of heat generated in the furnace is

Btu/h10936.3Btu/therm)100,000(therms/h)48)(82.0(

6

×==

gen

Q

&

Noting that 1% of the heat generated can be dissipated by natural convection and radiation ,

Btu/h360,39Btu/h)10936.3)(01.0(

6

=×=

Q

&

The total rate of heat loss from the furnace by natural convection and radiation can be expressed as

])R46075()[.RBtu/h.ft101714.0)(m7.326)(85.0(
)]R46075()[ft7.326(F).Btu/h.ft7287.0(Btu/h360,39
)()(

444282
2244

+−×+
+−°=
−+−=

−∞

sssurr ssss

T T T T AT T hAQ

σ ε

&

Its solution is

F141.8

°==

R8.601

s

T

which is very close to the assumed value. Therefore, there is no need to repeat calculations. The totalamount of heat loss and its cost during a-2800 hour period isBtu10102.1h)2800)(Btu/h360,39(

8

×==Δ=

t QQ

totaltotal

&

$1267

=×=

therm) / 15.1)($therm000,100 / 10102.1(Cost

8

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL

. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers andeducators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

9-28

9-37

A glass window is considered. The convection heat transfer coefficient on the inner side of thewindow, the rate of total heat transfer through the window, and the combined natural convection andradiation heat transfer coefficient on the outer surface of the window are to be determined.

Assumptions

1

Steady operating conditions exist.

2

Air is anideal gas with constant properties.

3

The local atmosphericpressure is 1 atm.

Q

&

Outdoors-5

°

CGlass

T

s

= 5

°

C

ε

= 0.9

L

= 1.2 mRoom

T

∞

= 25

°

C

Properties

The properties of air at 1 atm and the filmtemperature of (

T

s

+

T

∞

)/2 = (5+25)/2 = 15

°

C are (Table A-15)

1-25

K003472.0
K)27315(
117323.0Pr
/sm10470.1
CW/m.02476.0

=+===×=°=

−

f

T k

β ν

Analysis

(

a

) The characteristic length in this case is the height of the window,

m.2.1

==

L L

c

Then,

92253-1223

10989.3)7323.0(
) /sm10470.1(
)m2.1)(K525)(K34720.0)(m/s81.9(
Pr)(

×=×−=−=

−∞

0

ν β

cs

LT T g
Ra

7.1897323.0492.01)10989.3(387.0
825.0Pr492.01Ra387.0
825.0

227 / 816 / 96 / 19
227 / 816 / 96 / 1

=⎪⎪⎪⎭⎪⎪⎪⎬⎫⎪⎪⎪⎩⎪⎪⎪⎨⎧⎥⎥⎦⎤⎢⎢⎣⎡⎟ ⎠ ⎞⎜⎝ ⎛ +×+=⎪⎪⎪⎭⎪⎪⎪⎬⎫⎪⎪⎪⎩⎪⎪⎪⎨⎧⎥⎥⎦⎤⎢⎢⎣⎡⎟ ⎠ ⎞⎜⎝ ⎛ ++=

Nu

2

m4.2m)m)(22.1(
)7.189(
m2.1
CW/m.02476.0

==°=°==

s

A Nu Lk h

C.W/m3.915

2

(

b

) The sum of the natural convection and radiation heat transfer from the room to the window is

W9.187C)525)(m4.2)(C.W/m915.3()(

22convection

=°−°=−=

∞

ss

T T hAQ

&

W3.234])K2735()K27325)[(.KW/m1067.5)(m4.2)(9.0(
)(

444282
44radiation

=+−+×=
−=

−

ssurr s

T T AQ

σ ε

&

W422.2

=+=+=

3.2349.187

radiationconvectiontotal

QQQ

&&&

(

c

) The outer surface temperature of the window can be determined fromC65.3
)m4.2)(CW/m.78.0(
)m006.0)(W2.422(
C5)(

2total,,,,total

°=°−°=−= ⎯→ ⎯ −=

sisososis
s

kAt QT T T T
t kAQ

&&

Then the combined natural convection and radiation heat transfer coefficient on the outer window surface becomes

C.W/m20.35

2

°=°−−=−=−=

∞∞

C)]5(65.3)[m4.2(
W2.422
)( or)(

2,,totalcombined,,combinedtotal

ooss
ooss

T T AQhT T AhQ

&&

Note that and thus the thermal resistance

R

of a layer is proportional to the temperature dropacross that layer. Therefore, the fraction of thermal resistance of the glass is equal to the ratio of thetemperature drop across the glass to the overall temperature difference,

RQT

&

=Δ

4.5%)(or045.0
)5(25
65.35

totalglasstotalglass

=−−−=ΔΔ=

TRT R R

which is low. Thus it is reasonable to neglect the thermal resistance of the glass.

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL

. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers andeducators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.

1 hundred reads

Amr Omar liked this

elcharlycvo liked this

klavdaki3823 liked this

freddy310 liked this

B-Pos liked this

Damien_Keary_B_2460 liked this

sagarhp88 liked this

- Read and print without ads
- Download to keep your version
- Edit, email or read offline

© Copyright 2015 Scribd Inc.

Language

Choose the language in which you want to experience Scribd:

Sign in with Facebook

Sorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

or

Password Reset Email Sent

Join with Facebook

Sorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

or

By joining, you agree to our

read free for two weeks

Unlimited access to more than

one million books

one million books

Personalized recommendations

based on books you love

based on books you love

Syncing across all your devices

Join with Facebook

or Join with emailSorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

Already a member? Sign in.

By joining, you agree to our

to download

Unlimited access to more than

one million books

one million books

Personalized recommendations

based on books you love

based on books you love

Syncing across all your devices

Continue with Facebook

Sign inJoin with emailSorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

By joining, you agree to our

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

CANCEL

OK

You've been reading!

NO, THANKS

OK

scribd