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HT3eChap09_52

# HT3eChap09_52

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05/10/2014

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9-26
9-35
A fluid flows through a pipe in calm ambient air. The pipe is heated electrically. The thickness of theinsulation needed to reduce the losses by 85% and the money saved during 10-h are to be determined.
Assumptions
1
Steady operating conditions exist.
2
Air is an ideal gas with constant properties.
3
The localatmospheric pressure is 1 atm.
Properties
Insulation will drop the outer surface temperature to a value close to the ambient temperature,and possible below it because of the very low sky temperature for radiation heat loss. For convenience, weuse the properties of air at 1 atm and 5
°
C (the anticipated film temperature) (Table A-15),
1-25
K003597.0 K)2735( 117350.0Pr  /sm10382.1 CW/m.02401.0
=+===×=°=
f
β ν

Analysis

The rate of heat loss in the previousproblem was obtained to be 29,094 W. Notingthat insulation will cut down the heat losses by85%, the rate of heat loss will be
W4364W094,2915.0)85.01(
insulationno
=×==
QQ
&&
Asphalt
L
= 100 m

D
+ 2
ins
25
°
CInsulation
ε
= 0.1
sky
= -30
°
C
= 0
°
C
The amount of energy and money insulation will save during a 10-h period is simply determined fromkWh3.247h)kW)(10094.2985.0(
,

=×=Δ=
QQ
saved totalsaved
&

\$22.26
==
)kWh / 09.0)(\$kWh3.247(=energy)of costtsaved)(UniEnergy(savedMoney The characteristic length in this case is the outer diameter of the insulated pipe,where
insulinsulc
D L
23.02
+=+=
insul
is the thickness of insulation in m. Then the problem can beformulated for
s
and
insul
as follows:)7350.0( ) /sm10382.1( )23.0(K])273)[(K003597.0)(m/s81.9( Pr)(
2253-1223
×+==
insulscs
Lg  Ra
ν  β

( )
[ ]
( )
[ ]
227 / 816 / 96 / 1227 / 816 / 96 / 1
7350.0 / 559.01 387.06.0Pr / 559.01 387.06.0
++=++=
Ra Ra Nu
m))(10023.0( CW/m.02401.0
0
insulscc
L D A  Nu L Nu Lh
+==°==
π π
The total rate of heat loss from the outer surface of the insulated pipe by convection and radiation becomes
])K27330()[.KW/m1067.5()1.0(+)273(4364 )()(
44428 44
+×= +=+=
ssss surr ssssrad conv
AhA  AhAQQQ
σ ε
&&&
In steady operation, the heat lost by the side surfaces of the pipe must be equal to the heat lost from theexposed surface of the insulation by convection and radiation, which must be equal to the heat conductedthrough the insulation. Therefore,
]3.0 / )23.0ln[( K)m)(298C)(100W/m.035.0(2 W4364 ) / ln()(2
tank
insulsosinsulation
D DkLQQ
+°===
π π
&&
The solution of all of the equations above simultaneously using an equation solver gives
s
= 281.5 K =8.5
°
C and
insul
=
0.013 m
=
1.3 cm
.Note that the film temperature is (8.5+0)/2 = 4.25
°
C which is very close to the assumed value of 5
°
C. Therefore, there is no need to repeat the calculations using properties at this new film temperature.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL
. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers andeducators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

9-27
9-36E
An industrial furnace that resembles a horizontal cylindrical enclosure whose end surfaces are wellinsulated. The highest allowable surface temperature of the furnace and the annual cost of this loss to theplant are to be determined.
Assumptions
1
Steady operating conditions exist.
2
Airis an ideal gas with constant properties.
3
The localatmospheric pressure is 1 atm.
L
= 13 ft

Furnace
ε
= 0.1Air
= 75
°
F
D
= 8 ft
Properties
The properties of air at 1 atm and theanticipated film temperature of (
s
+
)/2 =(140+75)/2=107.5
°
F are (Table A-15)
1-23
R001762.0 R)4605.107( 117249.0Pr  /sft101852.0 FBtu/h.ft.01546.0
=+===×=°=
f
β ν

Analysis

The solution of this problem requires a trial-and-error approach since the determination of theRayleigh number and thus the Nusselt number depends on the surface temperature which is unknown. Westart the solution process by “guessing” the surface temperature to be 140
°
F for the evaluation of theproperties and
h
. We will check the accuracy of this guess later and repeat the calculations if necessary. Thecharacteristic length in this case is the outer diameter of the furnace, ft.8
==
D L
c
Then,
102233-1223
10991.3)7249.0( ) /sft101852.0( )ft8)(R75140)(R001762.0)(ft/s2.32( Pr)(
×=×==
ν  β
Dg  Ra
s

( )
[ ]
( )
[ ]
8.3767249.0 / 559.01 )10991.3(387.0 6.0Pr / 559.01 387.06.0
227 / 816 / 96 / 110 227 / 816 / 96 / 1
=+×+=++=
Ra Nu

22
ft7.326)ft13)(ft8( F.Btu/h.ft7287.0)8.376( ft8FBtu/h.ft.01546.0
===°=°==
π π
DL A Nu Dh
s
The total rate of heat generated in the furnace is
Btu/h10936.3Btu/therm)100,000(therms/h)48)(82.0(
6
×==
gen
Q
&
Noting that 1% of the heat generated can be dissipated by natural convection and radiation ,
Btu/h360,39Btu/h)10936.3)(01.0(
6
=×=
Q
&
The total rate of heat loss from the furnace by natural convection and radiation can be expressed as
])R46075()[.RBtu/h.ft101714.0)(m7.326)(85.0(  )]R46075()[ft7.326(F).Btu/h.ft7287.0(Btu/h360,39 )()(
444282 2244
+×+ +°= +=
sssurr ssss
AhAQ
σ ε
&
Its solution is
F141.8
°==
R8.601
s
which is very close to the assumed value. Therefore, there is no need to repeat calculations. The totalamount of heat loss and its cost during a-2800 hour period isBtu10102.1h)2800)(Btu/h360,39(
8

×==Δ=
QQ
totaltotal
&

\$1267
=×=
therm) / 15.1)(\$therm000,100 / 10102.1(Cost
8
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL
. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers andeducators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

9-28
9-37
A glass window is considered. The convection heat transfer coefficient on the inner side of thewindow, the rate of total heat transfer through the window, and the combined natural convection andradiation heat transfer coefficient on the outer surface of the window are to be determined.
Assumptions
1
Steady operating conditions exist.
2
Air is anideal gas with constant properties.
3
The local atmosphericpressure is 1 atm.
Q
&
Outdoors-5
°
CGlass
s
= 5
°
C
ε
= 0.9
L
= 1.2 mRoom
= 25
°
C
Properties
The properties of air at 1 atm and the filmtemperature of (
s
+
)/2 = (5+25)/2 = 15
°
C are (Table A-15)
1-25
K003472.0 K)27315( 117323.0Pr  /sm10470.1 CW/m.02476.0
=+===×=°=
f
β ν

Analysis

(
a
) The characteristic length in this case is the height of the window,
m.2.1
==
L L
c
Then,
92253-1223
10989.3)7323.0( ) /sm10470.1( )m2.1)(K525)(K34720.0)(m/s81.9( Pr)(
×=×==
0
ν  β
cs
Lg  Ra

7.1897323.0492.01)10989.3(387.0 825.0Pr492.01Ra387.0 825.0
227 / 816 / 96 / 19 227 / 816 / 96 / 1
= ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ +×+= ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ ++=
Nu

2
m4.2m)m)(22.1( )7.189( m2.1 CW/m.02476.0
==°=°==
s
A Nu Lh
C.W/m3.915
2
(
b
) The sum of the natural convection and radiation heat transfer from the room to the window is
W9.187C)525)(m4.2)(C.W/m915.3()(
22convection
=°°==
ss
hAQ
&

W3.234])K2735()K27325)[(.KW/m1067.5)(m4.2)(9.0( )(
444282 44radiation

=++×= =
ssurr s
AQ
σ ε
&

W422.2
=+=+=
3.2349.187
radiationconvectiontotal
QQQ
&&&
(
c
) The outer surface temperature of the window can be determined fromC65.3 )m4.2)(CW/m.78.0( )m006.0)(W2.422( C5)(
2total,,,,total
°=°°== ⎯ ⎯ =
sisososis s
kAQ kAQ
&&

Then the combined natural convection and radiation heat transfer coefficient on the outer window surface becomes
C.W/m20.35
2
°=°===
C)]5(65.3)[m4.2( W2.422 )( or)(
2,,totalcombined,,combinedtotal
ooss ooss
AQh AhQ
&&
Note that and thus the thermal resistance
R
of a layer is proportional to the temperature dropacross that layer. Therefore, the fraction of thermal resistance of the glass is equal to the ratio of thetemperature drop across the glass to the overall temperature difference,
RQ
&
=Δ

4.5%)(or045.0 )5(25 65.35
totalglasstotalglass
==ΔΔ=
TR R R
which is low. Thus it is reasonable to neglect the thermal resistance of the glass.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL
. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers andeducators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

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