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Introduction to Aeroacoustics

Introduction to Aeroacoustics

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An introduction to aeroacoustics
A. Hirschberg
and S.W. Rienstra
∗∗
Eindhoven University of Technology,
Dept. of App. Physics and
∗∗
Dept. of Mathematics and Comp. Science,P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands.Email: A.Hirschberg@tue.nl and S.W.Rienstra@tue.nl
18 Jul 2004
20:23 18 Jul 2004 1 version: 18-07-2004

1 Introduction
Due to the nonlinearity of the governing equations it is very difﬁcult to predict the sound productionof ﬂuid ﬂows. This sound production occurs typically at high speed ﬂows, for which nonlinear inertialterms in the equation of motion are much larger than the viscous terms (high Reynolds numbers). Assound production represents only a very minute fraction of the energy in the ﬂow the direct predictionof sound generation is very difﬁcult. This is particularly dramatic in free space and at low subsonicspeeds. The fact that the sound ﬁeld is in some sense a small perturbation of the ﬂow, can, however,be used to obtain approximate solutions.Aero-acoustics provides such approximations and at the same time a deﬁnition of the acousticalﬁeld as an extrapolation of an ideal reference ﬂow. The difference between the actual ﬂow and thereference ﬂow is identiﬁed as a source of sound. This idea was introduced by Lighthill [68, 69]who called this an
analogy
. A second key idea of Lighthill [69] is the use of integral equations as aformal solution. The sound ﬁeld is obtained as a convolution of the Green’s function and the soundsource. The Green’s function is the linear response of the reference ﬂow, used to deﬁne the acousticalﬁeld, to an impulsive point source. A great advantage of this formulation is that random errors inthe sound source are averaged out by the integration. As the source also depends on the sound ﬁeldthis expression is not yet a solution of the problem. However, under free ﬁeld conditions one canoften neglect this feedback from the acoustical ﬁeld to the ﬂow. In that case the integral formulationprovides a solution.When the ﬂow is conﬁned, the acoustical energy can accumulate into resonant modes. Since theacoustical particle displacement velocity can become of the same order of magnitude as the main ﬂowvelocity, the feedback from the acoustical ﬁeld to the sound sources can be very signiﬁcant. This leadsto the occurrence of self-sustained oscillations which we call whistling. In spite of the back-reaction,the ideas of the analogy will appear to remain useful.As linear acoustics is used to determine a suitable Green’s function, it is important to obtain basicinsight into properties of elementary solutions of the wave equation. We will focus here on the waveequation describing the propagation of pressure perturbations in a uniform stagnant (quiescent) ﬂuid.While in acoustics of quiescent media it is rather indifferent whether we consider a wave equationfor the pressure or the density we will see that in aero-acoustics the choice of a different variablecorresponds to a different choice of the reference ﬂow and hence to another analogy. It seems para-doxical that analogies are not equivalent, since they are all reformulations of the basic equations of ﬂuid dynamics. The reason is that the analogy is used as an approximation. Such an approximationis based on some intuition and usually empirical observations. An example of such an approximationwas already quoted above. In free-ﬁeld conditions we often neglect the inﬂuence of the acousticalfeedback on the sound sources.While Lighthill’s analogy is very general and useful for order of magnitude estimate, it is lessconvenient when used to predict sound production by numerical simulations. One of the problems isthat the sound source deduced from Lighthill’s analogy is spatially rather extended, leading to slowlyconverging integrals. For low Mach number isothermal ﬂow we will see that aerodynamic soundproduction is entirely due to mean ﬂowvelocity ﬂuctuations, which may be described directly in termsof the underlying vortex dynamics. This is more convenient because vorticity is in general limited toa much smaller region in space than the corresponding velocity ﬁeld (Lighthill’s sound sources). Thisleads to the idea of using an irrotational ﬂow as reference ﬂow. The result is called Vortex Sound20:23 18 Jul 2004 1 version: 18-07-2004

Theory. Vortex Sound Theory is not only numerically efﬁcient, it also allows us to translate the veryefﬁcient vortex-dynamical description of elementary ﬂows directly into sound production propertiesof these ﬂows.We present here only a short summary of elements of acoustics and aero-acoustics. The structureof this chapter is inspired by the books of Dowling and Ffowcs Williams [25] and Crighton et. al [16].A more advanced discussion is provided in text books [102, 132, 82, 35, 6, 16, 49, 47, 48, 119]. Theinﬂuence of wall vibration is discussed in among others [14, 58, 93].In the following sections of this chapter we will consider:
Some ﬂuid dynamics (section 2),
Free space acoustics (section 3),
Aero-acoustical analogies (section 4),
Aero-acoustics of conﬁned ﬂows (section 5),
2 Fluid dynamics
2.1 Mass, momentum and energy equations
We consider the motion of ﬂuids in the continuum approximation. This means that quantities such asthe velocity
v
and the density
ρ
are smooth functions of space and time coordinates
(
x
,
)
[105, 3,63, 126, 62, 99, 27]. We consider the fundamental equations of mass, momentum and energy appliedto an inﬁnitesimally small ﬂuid particle of volume
. We call this a material element. We deﬁnethe density of the material element equal to
ρ
, and the mass is therefore simply
ρ
. As the mass isconserved, i.e.d
)
=
ρ
d
+
d
ρ
=
0
,
the rate of change of the density, observed while moving with the ﬂuid velocity
v
, is equal to minusthe dilatation rate:1
ρ
D
ρ
D
= −
1
D
D
= −
∇·
v
where the Lagrangian time derivative D
ρ/
D
is related to the Eulerian time derivative
∂ρ/∂
by:D
ρ
D
=
∂ρ
+
(
v
·∇
.
(1)For a cartesian coordinate system
x
=
(
x
1
,
x
2
,
x
3
)
we can write this in the index notation:D
ρ
D
=
∂ρ
+
v
i
∂ρ
x
i
where
v
i
∂ρ
x
i
=
v
1
∂ρ
x
1
+
v
2
∂ρ
x
2
+
v
3
∂ρ
x
3
.
(2)According to the convention of Einstein, the repetition of the index
i
implies a summation over this
index. Substitution of deﬁnition (2) into equation (1) yields the mass conservation law appliedto a ﬁxed inﬁnitesimal volume element:
∂ρ
+
∇·
v
)
=
0
,
or
∂ρ
+
∂ρv
i
x
i
=
0
.
(3)20:23 18 Jul 2004 2 version: 18-07-2004