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Centrifugal Governors- Viva Questions

Centrifugal Governors- Viva Questions

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Published by: Nuumero uno on Mar 03, 2009
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10/22/2012

 
TOM 1-- GOVERNORS VIVA Question and answers
GOVERNORSQ1.State the function of governor as applied to the I.C. Engines?
The function of the governor 
,
as applied to the engines, is to
adjust the supply of  fuel 
according to the
load requirements
so as to
keep the speeds at various, loads
,
as close to the mean speed as possible
, over long range of working of the engines.The function of a governor is more or less
intermittent
i.e. it reacts only whenever there is variation of load. In brief governor takes care of the change of speed due toload variation over periods of the engine’s running and tends to keep it as close tothe mean speed as possible.Hence
The function of governor is to
control the speed 
of an engine within prescribed limits
 for variations of loads
upon the engine over a period of time
Q2.How is governing done in steam engines?AnsQ3.Define height of governor and sleeve lift
Ans-
Height of governor
-It is the vertical distance between the center of thegovernor halls and the point of intersection between the upper arms on the axis of spindle is known as governor height. It is generally denoted by h.
2
nd
year mechanical Engg
1
 
TOM 1-- GOVERNORS VIVA Question and answers
Sleeve lift
: the vertical distance the sleeve travels due to change in the equilibriumspeed is called the sleeve lift. The vertical downward travel may be termed asnegative lift.
Q4.The function of governor is
a)
To control the engine speed 
b)
To maintain the speed of an engine within prescribed limits fovarying load conditions.
c)
To maintain constant speed of the pistond)To maintain constant engine speed
Q5.What is meant by Equilibrium speeds in case of governors?
Ans: The speeds at which the governor balls, the arms etc. are in completeequilibrium and the
sleeve does not tend to move upward or downward
arecalled the equilibrium speeds. The speed at the mean position of the balls or thesleeve is the mean equilibrium speed and at the maximum and minimum radius of rotation of the balls without tending to move either way are termed as maximumand minimum equilibrium speeds respectively. There can be many equilibriumspeeds between the mean and maximum and the mean and the minimumequilibrium speeds.
Q6.Define and explain Governor Effort.
Ans- A governor running at a constant speed is in equilibrium and the resultantforce acting on the sleeve is zero. If the speed of the governor increases there is aforce on the sleeve which tends to lift it. This force will gradually go on decreasingtill the governor starts rotating in equilibrium at the new position of rotation. Themean force acting on the sleeve for a given change of speed or lift of the sleeve isknown as the governor effort.
Q7.What is meant by controlling force in case of governors?Ans-
The force acting radially upon the rotating balls to counteract its centrifugalforce is called the controlling force. It is provided by
weight of the sleeve, centralload
 
on the sleeve, compressed spring and the weight of the balls.Q8.Explain the terms
1)
Isochronism
2)
Stability
3)
Hunting
 
4)
Sensitiveness
2
nd
year mechanical Engg
2
 
TOM 1-- GOVERNORS VIVA Question and answers
Isochronism:
This is an extreme case of sensitiveness. When the equilibriumspeed is constant for all radii of rotation of the balls within the working range, thegovernor is said to be in isochronism. This means that the difference between themaximum and minimum equilibrium speeds is zero and the sensitiveness shall beinfinite.
Stability:
 
Stability is the ability to maintain a desired engine speed withoutfluctuating. Instability results in hunting or oscillating due to over correction.Excessive stability results in a dead-beat governor or one that does not correctsufficiently for load changes
Hunting:
The phenomenon of 
continuous fluctuation of the engine speed
aboveand below the mean speed is termed as hunting. This occurs in
over-sensitive
or isochronous governors.Suppose an isochronous governor is fitted to an engine running at a steady load.With a slight increase of load, the speed will fall and the sleeve will immediatelyfall to its lowest position. This shall open the control valve wide and excess supplyof energy will be given, with the result that the speed will rapidly increase and thesleeve will rise to its higher position. As a result of this movement of the sleeve,the control valve will be cut off; the supply to the engine and the speed will againfall, the cycle being repeated indefinitely. Such a governor would admit either more or less amount of fuel and so effect would be that the engine would hunt.
Sensitiveness
: A governor is said to be sensitive, if its change of speed s from noload to full load may be as small a fraction of the mean equilibrium speed as possible and the corresponding sleeve lift may be as large as possible.Supposeω
1
= max. equilibrium speedω
2
= min. equilibrium speedω = mean equilibrium speed = (ω
1
+ ω
2
)/2Therefore sensitiveness = (ω
1
- ω
2
)/2
Q9.State the principle of operation of governors.Ans-
When the load on an engine increases or decreases, obviously its speed willrespectively decrease or increase to the extent of variation of load. This variation of speed has to be controlled by the governor, within small limits of the mean speed.This necessities that when the load increases and consequently the speed decreases,the supply of fuel to one engine has to be increased accordingly, to compensate for the loss of the speed, so as to bring back the speed close to the mean speed.Conversely when the load decreases, and the speed increase, the supply of fuel hasto be reduced. This implies that the governor should have its mechanism working
2
nd
year mechanical Engg
3

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