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Table Of Contents

1 Introduction
1.1 Why Algae for Production of Biodiesel?
1.2 Technology State-of-the-Art
1.3 Brief Description of Production System
2 Technology Suitable for Large-Scale Production
2.1 Problems in Photobioreactors
2.1.1 Oxygen Oversaturation
2.1.2 pH-value
2.1.3 Temperature
2.2 Open Pond System
2.2.1 Advantages
2.2.2 Disadvantages
2.3 Closed Photobioreactors
2.3.1 Advantages
2.3.2 Disadvantages
2.3.3 Comparison of Different Systems of Closed Photobioreactors
2.4 Conclusions - Type of Reactor
2.5 Choosing the Right Algae
2.5.1 General Aspects to Consider
2.5.2 Algae Strains with High Oil Content
2.5.3 Phaeodactylum tricornutum
2.5.4 Chlorella protothecoides
2.5.5 Botryococcus braunii
2.5.6. Nannochloropsis salina
2.5.7 Choosing an Algae Strain
2.6 Harvesting of Algae - Separation of Particles from Water
2.6.1 Flocculation
2.6.2 Gravity Sedimentation
2.6.3 Centrifugal Recovery
2.6.4 Ultrasound
2.6.5 Filtration
2.6.6 Dissolved Air Flotation
2.6.7 Conclusion - Separation of Particles from Water
2.7 Extraction of Microalgal Oil from Biomass
2.7.1 Bead Mills
2.7.2 Presses
2.7.3 Solvent Extraction
2.7.4 Cavitation
2.7.5 Less Known Methods
2.7.6 Conclusion - Extraction of Microalgal Oil from Biomass
2.8 Termochemical Liquefaction - an Alternative Path?
2.9 Post Processing – Crude Oil to Biodiesel
2.9.1 EN 14214
2.9.2 Pretreatment of Crude Oil
2.10 Transesterification of Crude Oil to Biodiesel
2.10.1 Heterogeneous Catalysis
2.10.2 Supercritical Methanol
2.11 Suitable Plant Location
2.12 Conclusion
3 Flow Diagram
3.1 Main Process Alternative
3.2 An Alternative Process
4 Cost Estimates
4.1 Total Annual Cost
4.1.1 Capital Costs
4.4.1 Cost of Photobioreactor Facility
4.4.2 Cost of Sedimentation Equipment
4.4.3 Cost of Cavitation Equipment
4.4.4 Cost for Separation of the Water Oil Algae Mixture
4.4.5 Cost of Degumming Equipment
4.4.6 Cost for Removal of Free Fatty Acids
4.4.7 Cost for Spray Drying Equipment
4.5 Revenues and Costs not Directly Derived from Unit Operations
4.5.1 Byproducts
4.5.2 Cost of Storage Tanks
4.5.3 Labor Costs
4.6 Summarized Costs for the Base Case
4.7 Sensitivity Analysis of Production Cost
4.7.1 The Production Rate of Algae
4.7.2 Concentration upon Harvest
4.7.3 Assumed Life Span of Facility and Interest Rate on Capital Investment
4.8 Conclusion
5 Bibliography
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
Appendix 3
Appendix 4
Appendix 5
Appendix 6
Appendix 7
Appendix 8
Appendix 9
Appendix 10
Appendix 11
Appendix 12
Appendix 13
Appendix 14
Appendix 15
Appendix 16
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Statoil Hydro Alger 2008

Statoil Hydro Alger 2008

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Published by: dionkant on Mar 09, 2013
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