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Ph. Turner, Seth - a misrepresented god in the Ancient Egyptian pantheon?, PhD, The University of Manchester, 2012

Ph. Turner, Seth - a misrepresented god in the Ancient Egyptian pantheon?, PhD, The University of Manchester, 2012

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Published by Miron Ciho
"Abstract; The conventional position of Seth in Ancient Egypt is as the villain amongst the gods. That is to say he is documented as the murderer of his brother, Osiris, and the enemy of Horus. However he does have a number of aspects and was venerated in certain guises and places, particularly the Delta. It is likely that the Osirian mythology represented the struggle between Upper and Lower Egypt at the time of the unification of Egypt in Predynastic and early Dynastic times. This is illustrated by the finding of a carved artefact from the Predynastic Amratian (Naqada I) period (4000-3500 B.C.E.) and the fact that Peribsen and Khasekhemwy had serekhs surmounted by a Seth animal. This confusion continues during the Old Kingdom where although Seth is mainly portrayed as the villain in the majority of the Pyramid Texts, at times he appears to be a friend of Osiris e.g.: in texts from Teti there is a statement that Seth is the arch-enemy of Osiris, as he was of Horus, and the defeat of Seth and his followers by Horus is described with great satisfaction; but, conversely in texts from Pepi: Seth and Thoth are called the brothers of Osiris who weep for him and in another place Seth is called upon to give life to Osiris. This surely illustrates the struggles that were continuing between Upper and Lower Egypt and when Upper Egypt was supplying the pharaohs, then Horus was triumphant and Seth portrayed in his villainous role, but when Lower Egypt held sway then Seth has a more prominent role. This thesis will examine Seth’s fluctuating role in these various periods of Ancient Egypt and seek to show that his rises and falls actually reflected the turbulent times that were a constant factor of life during these times and that, certainly in the Delta, and possibly in other parts of the country, his worship was always on-going. This will be achieved by:• Examining the ‘traditional’ positioning of Seth within the Osirian story.• Examining the worship of Seth in the Predynastic and early Dynastic time periods.• Examining the rise of Seth to prominence during the Hyksos Period.• Examining the position of Seth within the Ramesside era.• Examining the vilification he experienced during the Saite Period.• Examining the position of Seth during the Graeco-Roman Period".
"Abstract; The conventional position of Seth in Ancient Egypt is as the villain amongst the gods. That is to say he is documented as the murderer of his brother, Osiris, and the enemy of Horus. However he does have a number of aspects and was venerated in certain guises and places, particularly the Delta. It is likely that the Osirian mythology represented the struggle between Upper and Lower Egypt at the time of the unification of Egypt in Predynastic and early Dynastic times. This is illustrated by the finding of a carved artefact from the Predynastic Amratian (Naqada I) period (4000-3500 B.C.E.) and the fact that Peribsen and Khasekhemwy had serekhs surmounted by a Seth animal. This confusion continues during the Old Kingdom where although Seth is mainly portrayed as the villain in the majority of the Pyramid Texts, at times he appears to be a friend of Osiris e.g.: in texts from Teti there is a statement that Seth is the arch-enemy of Osiris, as he was of Horus, and the defeat of Seth and his followers by Horus is described with great satisfaction; but, conversely in texts from Pepi: Seth and Thoth are called the brothers of Osiris who weep for him and in another place Seth is called upon to give life to Osiris. This surely illustrates the struggles that were continuing between Upper and Lower Egypt and when Upper Egypt was supplying the pharaohs, then Horus was triumphant and Seth portrayed in his villainous role, but when Lower Egypt held sway then Seth has a more prominent role. This thesis will examine Seth’s fluctuating role in these various periods of Ancient Egypt and seek to show that his rises and falls actually reflected the turbulent times that were a constant factor of life during these times and that, certainly in the Delta, and possibly in other parts of the country, his worship was always on-going. This will be achieved by:• Examining the ‘traditional’ positioning of Seth within the Osirian story.• Examining the worship of Seth in the Predynastic and early Dynastic time periods.• Examining the rise of Seth to prominence during the Hyksos Period.• Examining the position of Seth within the Ramesside era.• Examining the vilification he experienced during the Saite Period.• Examining the position of Seth during the Graeco-Roman Period".

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Published by: Miron Ciho on Mar 10, 2013
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2
SETH
 – 
A MISREPRESENTED GOD IN THE ANCIENTEGYPTIAN PANTHEON?
A thesis submitted to the University of Manchester for thedegree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Faculty of Life Sciences.
2012Philip John Turner
 
3
1.
 
Contents 31.1 List of Figures 62.
 
Abstract 73.
 
Introduction 133.1 Egyptian Religion 133.2 Scholarship on Seth 143.2.1 Seth: Name, Iconography and Character 153.3 Research Problem/Questions 184. Seth in Predynastic Egypt 4400-3100 B.C.E. 214.1 Introduction 214.2 The Badarian culture in Ancient Egypt 214.3 The Amratian (Naqada I) culture in AncientEgypt 224.4 The Gerzean (Naqada II) culture in AncientEgypt 254.5 Summary 295. The Early Dynastic Period and the Old Kingdom3100 to 2181 B.C.E. 325.1 Introduction 325.2 The Unification of Egypt 325.3 The First Dynasty 335.4 The Second Dynasty 355.5 The Old Kingdom 365.6 Seth and the Pyramid Texts 405.6.1 The negative texts (69 in number, 9.1%) 425.6.2 The positive texts (20 in number, 2.6%) 435.6.3 The neutral texts (44 in number, 5.8%) 435.7 The Sixth Dynasty 445.8 Summary 446. The First Intermediate Period and MiddleKingdom 2181-1782 B.C.E. 466.1 Introduction 466.2 The Seventh Dynasty 466.3 The Eighth and Nineth Dynasties 486.4 The Tenth Dynasty 486.5 The Eleventh Dynasty 486.6 The Twelfth Dynasty 496.7 The Coffin Texts 516.7.1 The negative texts (72 in number, 6.0%)
52
 6.7.2 The positive texts (27 in number, 2.0%) 536.7.3 The neutral texts (32 in number, 3.0%) 536.8 Summary 537. Second Intermediate Period 1782-1549 B.C.E. 557.1 Introduction 55
 
4
7.2 The Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties 557.3 The Fifteenth and Sixteenth Dynasties 567.4 The Seventeenth Dynasty 587.5 The Hyksos and Seth 597.6 Summary 62The New Kingdom (part 1: The EighteenthDynasty 1549-1298 B.C.E.). 638.1 Introduction 638.2 The early years 638.3 The Great Hymn to Osiris 688.4 The Amarna heresy 698.5 Summary 739. The New Kingdom (part 2: The Nineteenth andTwentieth Dynasties 1298-1069 B.C.E.). 779.1 Introduction 779.2 Ramesses I 779.3 Seti I 789.4 Seti I
’s temple at Abydos
799.5 Ramesses II 829.6 Merneptah 879.7 Seti II 889.8 Dynasty Twenty
 – 
Setnakhte 889.9 Ramesses III 899.10 The later Ramessides 91
9.11 Tomb Workers’ Village at Deir 
-el-Medina 959.12 The Chester Beatty Papyrus 979.13 Seth in the Book of the Dead 1039.13.1 The negative spells (26 in number, 1.4%) 1049.13.2 The positive spells (13 in number, 0.7%) 1069.13.3 The neutral spells (12 in number, 0.6%) 1069.14 Summary 10910. The Third Intermediate Period 1064-656 B.C.E.11010.1 Introduction 11010.2 The High Priests 11010.3 The Twenty-first Dynasty 11010.4 The Twenty-second Dynasty 11110.5 The Twenty-third and Twenty-fourth Dynasties11310.6 The Twenty-fifth Dynasty 11310.7 The Shabaka Stone 11410.8 The threat from Assyria 11610.9 Summary 11711. The Late Period 664-332 B.C.E. 11811.1 Introduction 118

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