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Ans. 1(a):Evaporative Emissions
Hydrocarbon pollutants also escape into the air through fuel evaporation. With
today’s efficient exhaust emission controls and today’s gasoline formulations,
 evaporative losses can account for a majority of the total hydrocarbon pollutionfrom current model cars on hot days when ozone levels are highest. Evaporativeemissions occur several ways:
Automobile Emissions:
Gasoline evaporation increases as the temperature rises during theday, heating the fuel tank and venting gasoline vapors.
The hot engine and exhaust system can vaporize gasolinewhen the car is running.
The engine remains hot for a period of time after the car is turnedoff, and gasoline evaporation continues when the car is parked.
Gasoline vapors are always present in fuel tanks. These vaporsare forced out when the tank is filled with liquid fuel.
Basic Controls for Exhaust and Evaporative Emissions:
Evaporative emissions are the result of gasoline vapors escaping from the vehicle's fuel system.Since 1971, all U.S. vehicles have had fully sealed fuel systems that do not vent directly to theatmosphere; mandates for systems of this type appeared contemporaneously in other jurisdictions. In a typical system, vapors from the fuel tank and carburetor bowl vent (oncarbureted vehicles) are ducted to canisters containing activated carbon.The vapors are adsorbed within the canister, and during certain engine operational modes fresh air is drawn through the canister, pulling the vapor into the engine, where it burns. Gas vapors fromthe engine and fuel tank flow into the canister. Vapors in the canister flow back into the enginewhen the car is running.
The exhaust gases emitted by a 4-cycle spark ignition engine, operating at 100% efficiency andrunning on a mixture of air (oxygen) and any type of hydrocarbon fuel such as gasoline, wouldconsist of water vapor and C02 (carbon dioxide). However, the typical automotive engine doesnot operate at 100% efficiency, and the air/fuel mixture when burned produces exhaust gaseswhich contain various pollutants. Among these are: CO (carbon monoxide), a colorless,odorless, highly poisonous gas; HC (hydrocarbons) made up principally of minute particles of unburned gasoline; these particles react photochemically with sunlight to produce smog; andNOx (oxides of nitrogen) which combines with water in the atmosphere to help produce so-called acid rain, a dilute nitric acid which is damaging to vegetation. NOx also aids in theproduction of ground-level ozone which is damaging to sensitive lung tissues, and threateningto the health of very young people, and all those with upper respiratory problems. Harmlessgases are also emitted in the automotive exhaust stream. Most of the nitrogen content of theair which passes through the engine is unchanged. Any oxygen not used in the combustionprocess is also emitted unchanged, along with C02 and water which also are byproducts of thecombustion process. An air/fuel ratio of 14.7:1 (known as the stoichiometric ratio) is consideredto be the ideal to achieve from an emissions point of view. This ratio is the baseline value formeasuring the oxygen content of the exhaust, and is often referred to as Lambda value = 1.
CO: Carbon Monoxide
 CO is a result of incomplete combustion due to insufficient air in the air/fuel mixture. The levelof CO emissions (usually measured as a %-age of the total) is almost entirely dependent on thebalance of the air/fuel ratio. The lowest emissions being consistent with excess air. In thiscondition, further weakening the air/fuel ratio has no effect on CO levels. When the mixture isfuel-rich, the CO emissions will be high. Variations of ignition timing will have only a marginaleffect on CO levels.
HC: Hydrocarbons
 HCs are measured in ppm (parts per million). Their presence in the exhaust stream is a result of unburned or partly burned fuel, and engine oil. Unburned fuel originates from areas of improper combustion in those areas of the combustion chamber which are difficult for thesparkignited flame front to reach. HC emissions are also caused by blow-by, where unburnedair/fuel mixture escapes past the piston rings into the crankcase. Current engine design restrictsthe amount of escape to the atmosphere by recirculating engine fumes back into the intakemanifold. Unlike CO emissions, HC emissions increase during both rich and lean air/fuel
conditions. When the air/fuel mixture is rich in fuel, the combustion may be incomplete,therefore allowing the presence of unburned HCs in the exhaust stream.HC emissions increase in proportion to ignition advance, except at very lean air/fuel ratios.Factors such as poor mixture distribution, ignition misfires and low engine temperatures, will allcause significant increases in HC and CO emissions.
Evaporation from the gas tank also releases HCs into the atmosphere. Gas tank fumes arepassed to a carbon canister which absorbs the fumes and then recycles them for combustion inthe engine, when conditions permit. This process is controlled by the ECM (engine controlmodule), via an EVAP (evaporative emission) canister purge valve. Purge tests are nowbecoming part of the enhanced emission tests in some states, as are gas tank cap pressuretests.
NOx: Oxides of Nitrogen
 NOx emissions rise and fall in a reverse pattern compared with HC emissions. As the mixturebecomes leaner, more HCs are burned. But the free oxygen present combines with nitrogen,especially at high engine temperatures and at high pressures in the combustion chamber. NOxemissions also increase in proportion to ignition advance, regardless of variations in the air/fuelratio. NOx emissions can be significantly reduced by the technique of EGR (exhaust gasrecirculation). Since NOx formation is encouraged by high combustion chamber temperaturesand pressures, EGR works to divert exhaust gases from the exhaust manifold into the intakeduct, either through internal passages, or via external stainless steel piping. This addition of exhaust gases cools the incoming charge. The process is controlled by either a vacuum-operated EGR valve, or as in some late-model vehicles, by an electrically-operated EGR valve.Tomeasure NOx emissions accurately requires a dynamometer and a 5-gas analyzer. In thosestates now implementing enhanced emission programs, the measurement of NOx will be addedto the usual emission test measurements of CO and HC.
O2: Oxygen
 Oxygen in the exhaust stream is the result of excessive air (leaning out) in the air/fuel ratio. Asthe air/fuel mixture becomes higher in air and lower in fuel, it may be referred to as going outof stoichiometric. Since the engine does not produce oxygen, the combustion process useswhat oxygen there is in the air taken in with the gasoline. Therefore, any oxygen emitted withthe exhaust gases will have passed straight through the engine.Any misfire will cause the 02 content to rise sharply, since the air is not used in the combustionprocess. Residual oxygen in the exhaust, ahead of the catalytic converter, is sensed by the 02sensor, and the signal generated is used to adjust the air/fuel mixture back into the idealstoichiometric ratio of 14.7:1.

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