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Real Gas Friction Heating & Joule-Thompson Effect JT

Real Gas Friction Heating & Joule-Thompson Effect JT

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Published by Otis Arms
review of friction heating in flow of gases (gaz thermal) joule heating via friction in gas with implications for gas pipeline control valves and "black powder"
review of friction heating in flow of gases (gaz thermal) joule heating via friction in gas with implications for gas pipeline control valves and "black powder"

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Published by: Otis Arms on Mar 11, 2013
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01/02/2014

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1
Considerations on Real Gas Expansion:
Otis P. Armstrong P.E.
,
-Dec/1. 2011 r4
Abstract:
This topic is on effects of friction in real gas expansion, called non-reversible conditions.The subtlety of this effect can be masked by the accompanying temperature decrease ofgas expansion. Use of Clausius Equality (Entropy) can properly account for friction in gasflow. Many methods overlook the correct accounting for friction.It is irrefutable:
friction produces heat
, as shown on the following H-S diagram. A decreasein gas expander mechanical efficiency is accompanied by a subsequent increase in outlettemperature. A result of friction between gas and machinery surfaces. This is noticed on aH-S diagram by a counter-clockwise rotation away from the minimum isentropictemperature towards isothermal operation. Also for compression, friction will increaseoutlet temperature, a result of reduced efficiency, the same is true for nozzle flow.Likewise for valves: gas friction increases the outlet temperature. This is noticed on theH-S diagram by a counter-clockwise rotation away from the minimum isentropictemperature towards the Free Expansion temperature. The Joule or Free Expansiontemperature is lower than isothermal expansion temperature and proportional to theJoule Coefficient,
J
.Many thermodynamic concepts of gas expansions are just idealization concepts. Actualequipment shall always have friction effect, which will produce heat. For any real gasexpansion, generation of heat by friction produces a temperature increase.Temperature and pressure equations for Isothermal, Isenthalpic, Constant Internal Energy,and Isentropic gas processes are presented. The basis for these processes are the Joule-Thompson ,
JT
, and Joule coefficient ,
J
, of real gases. Calculations for, and uses of,
JT
&
J
are detailed in this discussion. HTML calculation widgets are embedded in the .pptdocument for the readers utilization.
 
2
Summary,Recommendations&CalculationMethods
A General Energy Balance is suitable for prediction of Real Flow Phenomena thru valves, pipes, Turbines,Compressors, pumps, and heaters. This general energy balance greatly simplifies the explination ofthermodynamics for either compressible or incompressible fluids into a unified concept.{W
s
+ dP/
+VdV/g + [Pd(1/
) +
U] -
(Q)
h
0} or (U+(V
2
/2g)/J)
1
+(Q-W)=(U+(V
2
/2g)/J)
2
+
(P
)+ F.Friction, F, may be determined by difference, by losses definition, or by (f L/D)(G/
)
2
/2gJ, the details areoutlined on pages 14 and 15, plus other discussions. The term fL/D is also the Crane K factor for flowapertures. Also Crane K, (TP410) is related to valve coefficient as detailed on page 14. Details for skinfriction are: K
f L/D = (29.84d
2
/C
V
)
2
= (1/K
d
)
2
= 1/
= 1/(
n
)The Clausius Equality {F=(T
S-
h
)} is correct accounting of frictional heat, for either gas or liquid flow withfriction. Dissipation of energy by Friction to heat always increases temperature relative to a reversibleprocess. A correct heat balance must always calculate zero heat addition for
Both
a Joule Expansion {dU=0}
and 
a Joule Thompson Expansion, {dH=0}.
The determination of dH & dU to include pressure correction is easily implemented by the temperature
change from Joule or JT coefficients. Methods to evaluate these coefficients and associated temperaturechange are presented in detail.
U=C
v
(
T-
T
JX
)&
H=C
p
(
T-
T
JTX
)
: The
C‟s
are low pressure heatcapacity. The temperature sign convention is easily remembered. For at either
U or
H = 0, thetemperature change will be negative for all but 3 quantum gasses, H
2
for example. This is detailed in thesection
“Inversion Point”
. These rules offer simple EOS thermodynamic consistency checks for simulationwork.
The Schultz method, combined with the JT coefficient greatly simplifies evaluation of gas compression and
expansion : T
2
= T
1
{P
2
/P
1
)
(m)
} m=(Z
/C
p
)(
) &
=(
+X)
expansion
=(1/
+ X)
compress
: The term X is related to theJT Coefficient, in Rankin/atmosphere, Cp in BTU/#/F, and density in #/CF as: X=(0.37

C
p
) . The details areon page 40. Compressor head and Power are determined by use of real gas enthalpy change, as explainedabove for total energy balance. A complete section is detailed in the appendix.The ratio of Joule Expansion temperature change to Joule Thompson Expansion temperature change is theratio of specific heats:
(
T
JTX
/
T
JX
)=(C
v
/C
p
).
The temperature drop associated with a Joule Free expansionis greater than a JT, the difference may be attributed to friction effect.Black Powder is found in raw gas pipelines
and 
sales gas pipelines. Installation of high friction gas valverequires immediate upstream gas filter to prevent black powder plugging, unless vendor warranty otherwise.
O P Armstrong PE/Dec.2011 printed Feb 2013
 
3
Introduction
Discussion with some engineers indicated a lack of graspon the heating effect of friction in gas flow. Additionalreview of literature showed a lack of presentation, thatdissipation of energy via friction produces heat,irrespective of the medium in which friction is dissipated.The TS diagram for gas on right depicts friction effect ineither compression or expansion. It shows that frictionincreases outlet temperature in both cases.
Even-so, some engineering routines perpetuate the cooling myth by misleading statements like:
“in
liquids friction produces heat but for gasses friction is converted to
“internal energy”‟,
hello?? Justwhat is heat? Followed by such statements as
“was
any heat added? Or was any work done by the
gas”
.This thought is routinely & incorrectly expressed by: (H+V
2
/2g/778)
1
= (H + V
2
/2g/778)
2
.Some process simulator programs do not take into account details of mechanical design. Thus the myththat friction pressure drop in gases does not heat a gas is routinely perpetuated. True: a normal gasexpansion cools, but friction in flow apertures reduces the amount of cooling. Why?, because frictionacts to reduce the output of useful work by energy dissipation to heat production. Heat generationalways acts to increase temperature.Here is a typical quote from a web page:
“flow
in oil pipelines acts to heat oil, where-as flow in gaspipelines acts to cool the gas.
It is NOT flow friction which acts to cool the gas but rather theexpansion resulting from pressure reduction. In BOTH cases, flow friction acts to produce heat. It isjust that the heating effect of flow friction in gas is masked by the normal cooling effect of gasexpansion.A field test with a high friction valve demonstrated that friction in gas flow acts to counter theexpansion cooling effect. The field trial IR temperature measurements were personally supervised.Results of this trial showed the valve outlet temperature exceeded the temperature determined bysimple JT expansion. Methods to quantify this effect are presented in this discussion.

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