Hobbes described the natural human condition as being in a state c: war.Drawing on the works of Galileo and Descartes, he envisioned humans as being inconstant motion in the political world, frequently clashing in an attempt to obtain power Civil war is seen as the inevitable consequence when a leader is not in control.Hobbes' solution is found in his
Laws of Nature
. These laws are based on acontractual agreement made between members of a society to put aside self-interest inorder to create a peaceful society. The effective leader is thus one who is able to instillsufficient fear in the populace so that they will resist their self-interested tendencies andobey the contract.
While Hobbes's Laws of Nature are based on reason and rationality, Locke pointsout that people are not always reasonable or rational. Locke promotes a system of government where the executive is subordinate to the legislature. The ideal leader is seenas one who is able to facilitate participation in major decisions and as one who canimplement decisions made by the legislature. The leader is thus a moderator, £ protector of rights.
– The Power of Deceiving
Niccolo Machiavelli lived in an era dominated by commercialism and in manyways his views were the embodiment of this era. Machiavelli was not interested inimagining any "ideal" cities or societies. Rather, his focus was on providing advice toleaders in the "real world." His "ideal leader," represented in his text The Prince, is,above all, practical. The Prince is able to examine situations and to adjust his behavior accordingly. Thus, at times the Prince is kind-hearted and at other times the Prince isharsh. In contrast to previous theorists who extolled the "ideal leader" as virtuous,Machiavelli posits that the possession of virtue may be a hindrance to the Prince, as somesituations call for vice above virtue. The primary characteristic that the Prince must have,asserts Machiavelli, is an ability to foresee future contingencies in order to bring themunder control.
– The Father of a Nation
Gandhi was, and still is, respected as one of the greatest leaders of his time. Hisideas have influenced several other leaders, including Martin Luther King Jr. The peopleof India called him Mahatma (great soul) and Bapu (Father). He was willing to stand byhis beliefs in withstanding severe criticism, jail time, even physical illness, and was readyto face death rather than give up his ideals. He was truly the father of Indianindependence.