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Wind Energy Systems by Gary L. Johnson

Wind Energy Systems by Gary L. Johnson

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Published by: mino_mino86 on Mar 11, 2013
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10/31/2013

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WIND ENERGY SYSTEMS
Electronic Edition
by
Gary L. Johnson
Manhattan, KS
 
i
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 Introduction..............................................................................1-1
1.1 Historical Uses of Wind...................................................................1-21.2 History of Wind Electric Generation...............................................1-31.3 Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Research..........................................1-51.4 Darrieus Wind Turbines.................................................................1-131.5 Innovative Wind Turbines..............................................................1-161.6 California Wind farms....................................................................1-21
2 Wind Characteristics................................................................2-1
2.1 Meteorology of Wind........................................................................2-12.2 World Distribution of Wind.............................................................2-72.3 Wind Speed Distribution in the United States................................2-82.4 Atmospheric Stability.....................................................................2-142.5 Wind Speed Variation With Height...............................................2-232.6 Wind Speed Statistics....................................................................2-262.7 Weibull Statistics...........................................................................2-302.8 Determining the Weibull Parameters.............................................2-382.9 Rayleigh and Normal Distributions................................................2-442.10 Distribution of Extreme Winds....................................................2-552.11 Problems.......................................................................................2-62
3 Wind Measurements.................................................................3-1
3.1 Eolian Features................................................................................3-13.2 Biological Indicators........................................................................3-23.3 Rotational Anemometers.................................................................3-53.4 Other Anemometers.......................................................................3-143.5 Wind Direction..............................................................................3-173.6 Wind Measurements with Balloons...............................................3-283.7 Problems........................................................................................3-34Wind Energy Systems by Dr. Gary L. Johnson October 10, 2006
 
ii
4 Wind Turbine Power, Energy, and Torque...............................4-1
4.1 Power Output from an Ideal Turbine..............................................4-14.2 Aerodynamics..................................................................................4-44.3 Power Output from Practical Turbines...........................................4-74.4 Transmission and Generator Efficiencies........................................4-134.5 Energy Production and Capacity Factor........................................4-214.6 Torque at Constant Speeds............................................................4-294.7 Drive Train Oscillations.................................................................4-334.8 Starting a Darrieus Turbine...........................................................4-394.9 Turbine Shaft Power and Torque at Variable Speeds....................4-434.10 Problems......................................................................................4-49
5 Wind Turbine on the Electrical Network.................................5-1
5.1 Methods of Generating Synchronous Power....................................5-15.2 AC Circuits.....................................................................................5-45.3 The Synchronous Generator..........................................................5-145.4 Per Unit Calculations....................................................................5-225.5 The Induction Machine.................................................................5-275.6 Motor Starting..............................................................................5-375.7 Capacity Credit.............................................................................5-405.8 Features of the Electrical Network................................................5-485.9 Problems.......................................................................................5-58
6 Asynchronous Electrical Generators........................................6-1
6.1 Asynchronous Systems....................................................................6-26.2 DC Shunt Generator with Battery Load.........................................6-56.3 Permanent Magnet Generators......................................................6-116.4 AC Generators..............................................................................6-186.5 Self-Excitation of the Induction Generator...................................6-206.6 Single-Phase Operation of the Induction Generator.....................6-32Wind Energy Systems by Dr. Gary L. Johnson October 10, 2006

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