Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Between fragmenting and multiplying: scale-shift processes in Serbian and Croatian antiwar activisms

Between fragmenting and multiplying: scale-shift processes in Serbian and Croatian antiwar activisms

|Views: 11|Likes:
Published by Bojan Bilić
This paper follows the almost contemporaneous emergence of the two primary antiwar initiatives in Belgrade and Zagreb to explore how they acted as hotbeds from which permanent human rights organizations appeared in the newly created nation-states.
This paper follows the almost contemporaneous emergence of the two primary antiwar initiatives in Belgrade and Zagreb to explore how they acted as hotbeds from which permanent human rights organizations appeared in the newly created nation-states.

More info:

Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Bojan Bilić on Mar 11, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





This article was downloaded by: [Bojan
On: 11 March 2013, At: 09:19Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registeredoffice: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK
Nationalities Papers: The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity
Publication details, including instructions for authors andsubscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/cnap20
Between fragmenting and multiplying:scale-shift processes in Serbian andCroatian antiwar activisms
Bojan Bili
School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University CollegeLondon, UKVersion of record first published: 11 Mar 2013.
To cite this article:
Bojan Bili
(2013): Between fragmenting and multiplying: scale-shift processesin Serbian and Croatian antiwar activisms, Nationalities Papers: The Journal of Nationalism andEthnicity, DOI:10.1080/00905992.2012.747505
To link to this article:
PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLEFull terms and conditions of use:http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditionsThis article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Anysubstantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing,systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden.The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representationthat the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of anyinstructions, formulae, and drug doses should be independently verified with primarysources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings,demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly orindirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.
Between fragmenting and multiplying: scale-shift processes in Serbianand Croatian antiwar activisms
Bojan Bilic´
School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University College London, UK 
 Received 29 March 2012; final version received 21 June 2012
)This paper follows the almost contemporaneous emergence of the two primary antiwarinitiatives in Belgrade and Zagreb to explore how they acted as hotbeds from whichpermanent human rights organizations appeared in the newly created nation-states.Drawing mostly upon in-depth interviews with antiwar activists from Serbia andCroatia, I argue that the dominant patterns of protest expansion were different in thetwo countries. While cooperation and tensions existed within both antiwar groups,the Antiwar Campaign of Croatia acted as a broker, leading toward themultiplication of civic initiatives; on the other hand, the Belgrade Center forAntiwar Action was characterized by ideological, professional, and personaldivisions, which caused a rapid fragmentation of antiwar undertakings. This paperoutlines the main reasons for such expansion patterns (scale-shift processes) anddiscusses them in the light of recent theoretical advances in political contention studies.
Antiwar Campaign of Croatia; Center for Antiwar Action; Croatia; Serbia;scale shift
Scale-shift processes within the Serbian and Croatian antiwar enterprises represent a par-ticularly under-theorized aspect of (post-)Yugoslav antiwar engagement. These are mech-anisms through which the breadth of contention increased in these ex-Yugoslav republics.This paper follows the nearly contemporaneous emergence of the two primary antiwarinitiatives (in the social-movement lexicon:
) which appeared in Belgrade andZagreb at the very beginning of the wars of Yugoslav succession, namely the Centerfor Antiwar Action (
Centar za antiratnu akciju
) and the Antiwar Campaign of Croatia(
 Antiratna kampanja Hrvatske
I offer a suggestive account of how these two initiatives– which soon after their appearance lost the federal frame in which they had intended tooperate acted as hotbeds from which many episodic instances of contentious politics aswell as more permanent human rights organizations (
) were created in their newlyfounded nation-states. This paper identifies and starts to socially root a set of processesresponsible for the expansion of the politically oriented civic scenes in these two countries,which – while giving an impression of similarity – had appreciably different developmen-tal pathways.An exploration of scale-shift processes interactions within, fragmentation and mul-tiplication of nascent collective enterprises accentuates the relational nature of conten-tion’s numerous facets. It also transcends the orientation of single actors severed from theirbroader political and cultural environment which at certain points characterized the classicsocial movement agenda. Studying social movement expansion mechanisms takes intoaccount Melucci’s argument (1992) that movement unity is not an empirical given but acommonsensical observation which calls for meticulous sociological investigation.
2013 Association for the Study of Nationalities
Emails: bojan.bilic.09@ucl.ac.uk, BilicB@ceu.hu†Current address: Institute for Advanced Study, Central European University, Budapest.
 Nationalities Papers
, 2013http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00905992.2012.747505
   D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   B  o   j  a  n   B   i   l   i   ]  a   t   0   9  :   1   9   1   1   M  a  r  c   h   2   0   1   3
Accounts of collective undertakings which we, as observers of social phenomena, tend totransform into actions done by homogeneous performers representing an ideologicalstance in a given period of time, are but snapshots of continually unfolding processes of negotiation, polarization, or cooperation, informing and learning from each other. Thus,collective action should be “conceived as a field of meanings and orientations whichare constructed through social relationships within resources and limits” (Melucci 1992,247).Positioning scale-shift processes in a comparative perspective is relevant for severalreasons. First, unearthing antiwar enterprises diversifies the Yugoslav political scenetoward the end of the 1980s and in the early 1990s. Such an approach points to the pres-ence of antinationalist and mostly centripetally oriented
(con)federal alternatives that tendto get lost in the widespread simplistic accounts of Yugoslavia’s break-up. While not dilut-ing the importance of the (pervasive) nationalism argument, the focus on antiwar initiat-ives supplements the authoritative, but sometimes monofocal, nationalism studies. Itcontributes to an empirical corpus which should enable (post-)Yugoslav antiwar civicengagement long sidelined in Yugoslav studies to assume its proper place in theinterpretations of Yugoslavia’s disintegration.Positioning the antiwar enterprises which unfolded in Serbia and Croatia throughoutthe 1990s in a comparative design is justified by the fact that the relationship between Bel-grade and Zagreb represented the central axis of Yugoslav political life. These twocountries constitute an “epistemological pair” through which distorted nationalist senti-ments are mutually encouraged. As Gagnon (2004, xix) points out:
Serbia and Croatia
. . .
represent cases of what western observers characterize as extremistnationalism leading to violence, and they are often held up as the paradigmatic examplesof ethnic conflict.
Documenting and theorizing antiwar efforts in both countries – and especially theircapitals can subvert what tends to be presented as a popular consensus around thenational cause. Developmental trajectories of the earliest civic initiatives are crucial forunderstanding the subsequent processes through which the nationally bounded NGOspheres in the post-Yugoslav countries were formed as well as for better appreciatingthe power arrangements among them.By treating the Center for Antiwar Action and the Antiwar Campaign of Croatia as“early risers” (Tarrow 1998), I do not mean to suggest that either of them appeared in apolitical vacuum or that they were the sole representatives of the antiwar voice in theirrespective republics. In recent East European sociological scholarship there is a tendencyto simplify Yugoslav political life which also witnessed dissenting voices and was moreliberal in comparison with the countries under the stronger Soviet influence. Yugoslaviawas not a conflict-free society in which citizens’ political agency was discovered withthe arrival of foreign foundations. New (political) organizations erupted onto the publicscene in the early 1990s, testifying to a lot of political conflictuality which had beenbrewing beneath the legislative surface. Toward the end of the 1980s, destabilized andeconomically weakened Yugoslavia witnessed nascent federation-wide extra-institutionalattempts to pacify the situation and evade an armed conflict whose imminence and crueltycould have been discerned. These collective undertakings, such as for example the Associ-ation for the Yugoslav Democratic Initiative, the Reformatory Party (
 Reformska stranka
,led by the last Yugoslav prime minister, Ante Markovic´), or the European Movement inYugoslavia (
Evropski pokret u Jugoslaviji
), constitute important precursors of antiwarengagement. A significant political change which leads to an expansion of political2
B. Bilic´ 
   D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   B  o   j  a  n   B   i   l   i   ]  a   t   0   9  :   1   9   1   1   M  a  r  c   h   2   0   1   3

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->