Madison is the capital o theU.S. state o Wisconsin and thecounty seat o Dane County. Aso July 1, 2011, Madison had anestimated population o 236,901,making it the second largest city in Wisconsin, aer Milwaukee,and the 81st largest in the UnitedStates. Te city orms the core o the United States Census Bureau’sMadison Metropolitan StatisticalArea, which includes all o DaneCounty and neighboring Iowaand Columbia counties. TeMadison Metropolitan StatisticalArea had a 2010 population o 568,593.Madison’s origins begin in 1829,when ormer ederal judge JamesDuane Doty purchased over athousand acres (4 km²) o swampand orest land on the isthmusbetween Lakes Mendota andMonona, with the intention o building a city in the Four Lakesregion. When the Wisconsinerritory was created in 1836 theterritorial legislature convenedin Belmont, Wisconsin. Oneo the legislature’s tasks was toselect a permanent locationor the territory’s capital. Doty lobbied aggressively or Madisonas the new capital, oeringbualo robes to the reezinglegislators and promising choiceMadison lots at discount pricesto undecided voters. He hadJames Slaughter plat two cities inthe area, Madison and “Te City o Four Lakes”, near present-day Middleton. Doty named the city Madison or James Madison,the ourth President o theU.S. who had died on June 28,1836 and he named the streetsor the other 39 signers o theU.S. Constitution. Althoughthe city existed only on paper,the territorial legislature votedon November 28 in avor o Madison as its capital, largely because o its location halway between the new and growingcities around Milwaukee in theeast and the long establishedstrategic post o Prairie du Chienin the west, and between thehighly populated lead miningregions in the southwest andWisconsin’s oldest city, Green Bay in the northeast. Being namedor the much-admired oundingather James Madison, who had just died, and having streetsnamed or each o the 39 signerso the Constitution, may havealso helped attract votes.
Te cornerstone or theWisconsin capitol was laid in1837, and the legislature rstmet there in 1838. On October9, 1839, Kintzing Prichettregistered the plat o Madison atthe registrar’s ofce o the then-territorial Dane County. Madisonwas incorporated as a village in1846, with a population o 626.When Wisconsin became a statein 1848, Madison remained thecapital, and the ollowing year itbecame the site o the University o Wisconsin (now University o Wisconsin–Madison). TeMilwaukee & MississippiRailroad (a predecessor o theMilwaukee Road) connectedto Madison in 1854. Madisonincorporated as a city in 1856,with a population o 6,863,leaving the unincorporatedremainder as a separate own o Madison. Te original capitol wasreplaced in 1863 and the secondcapitol burned in 1904. Tecurrent capitol was built between1906 and 1917.During the Civil War, Madisonserved as a center o the UnionArmy in Wisconsin. Teintersection o Milwaukee, EastWashington, Winnebago andNorth Streets is known as UnionCorners, because a tavern locatedthere was the last stop or Unionsoldiers beore heading to ghtthe Conederates.