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Published by T-Bone02135
MIT DELVE AP Psychology Course Lecture 2 Notes
MIT DELVE AP Psychology Course Lecture 2 Notes

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Published by: T-Bone02135 on Mar 05, 2009
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Lecture 2: Psychology History and Methods
History of Psychology
There is a timeline in the front and back covers of your textbook. If you have a chance, look at it, but dontworry about memorizing all those dates. This isnt a history course. However, there are a few key dates andplayers youll need to remember. (These are here in the notes.)I Pre-scientific Psychology (enlightenment philosophy) (nature vs. nurture)A Plato (387 B.C.)i. Believed knowledge was innate (born within us)ii. Suggested that the brain was the seat of mental processesiii. The mind is separable from the body and continues after the body dies.B Aristotle (335 B.C.)i. Denied the idea that knowledge is innate; Rather, it grows from the experiences stored in ourmemory.ii. Believed that the heart was the seat of mental processes.C Rene Descartes (1596-1650)i. Viewed mind as body as interactive machines, responsible for both voluntary and involuntarybehaviors.ii. Ruled out organs other than the brain as locations of mental functioning.iii. Innate ideas and personality traits.iv. Published
A Discourse on Method 
.D John Locke (1632-1704)i. Opposed notion of innate ideas - all ideas and knowledge comes from experience and reflec-tions.ii. Mind and personality are a blank slate at birth (tabula rasa)iii. Published
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding 
which stressed empiricism over spec-ulation.E Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)i. Knowledge and personality are a product of both inborn dispositions and experience.F Franz Joseph Gall (1808)i. phrenology - the belief that the shape of a person’s skull reveals mental faculties and charactertraits.G Phineas Gage (1848)i. Suffers massive brain damage when a large iron rod accidentally pierces his brain leaving hisintellect and memory intact but altering his personality.H Paul Broca (1861)i. Discovers area in the left frontal lobe of the brain that is critical to the production of spokenlanguage (now called Broca’s area).1
 
I Carl Wernicke (1874)i. Shows that damage to a specific area in the left temporal lobe disrupts ability to comprehendor produce spoken or written language (now called Wernicke’s area).II Founders of Scientific PsychologyA Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)i. Founded first psychology research lab (Leipzig, Germany in 1879). Founder of modern scien-tific psychology (using scientific methods)ii. New research methods - introspection, psychophysical measurements (test sence) and reactiontimes.B Stanley Halli. First psychology lab in the U.S. (Johns Hopkins University 1883)ii. First American Psychology Journal (American Journal of Psychology - 1887)iii. First president of the American Psychological Association (1892)C William Jamesi. Published
Principles of Psychology 
, the most influential textbook in the history of psychology(1890).ii. Harvard University philosopher and psychologist.D Sigmund Freudi. Founder of psychoanalysis.ii. First to study the role of childhood in adult personality.iii. Wrote
The Interpretation of Dreams
(1900), which was the first psychology book that wasgeared toward the layman.iv. Developed concept of the unconscious mind.E John B. Watsoni. Founder of Behaviorismii. Said psychology should focus on behavior, not the mind or the unconscious.F Charles Darwin (1895 -
Origin of Species
)i. Theory of evolution influenced study of human behavior - evolution of human brain.ii. Led to the belief that we can learn about humans by studying animals - there are biologicalconnections between species.G Margaret Flay Washburni. First woman to receive a PhD in psychology (1894).H Mary Whiton Calkinsi. Finished all the requirements for PhD from Harvard, but the school denied her the degree.ii. First woman elected president of APA (1905).I Ivan Pavlovi. Published many studies on conditioned reflexes (1906)ii. “Salivating dog experiment”J Jean Piageti. Developmental psychologist who studied his own children.ii. Published
The Language and Thought of the Child 
(1923).2
 
Early Approaches to Psychology
I StructuralismA Founders: Wilhelm Wundt, Edward Bradford Titchener, G. Stanley HallB Summary: attempted to define makeup of conscious experience by breaking it down into objectivesensations, subjective feelings, and mental images. The mind functions by creatively combiningthese elements.II FunctionalismA Founders: William James, John Dewey, influenced by DarwinB Summary: address way in which experience lets us function more adaptively in our environments,supplements introspection with behavioral observation in lab. Says adaptive behavior patternsare learned and maintained (habits), maladaptive ones drop out.III BehaviorismA Founders: John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, influenced by PavlovB Summary: says speculation about stream of consciousness (esp. of lower animals) is inaccurate,to be a real science psychology most focus on only observable behavior. Studies responses tostimuli, conditioning, and effects of reinforcement.IV Gesalt PsychologyA Founders: Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang KohlerB Summary: says human nature cant be understood by behavior alone, and perception cant bebroken down into units. Perceptions are wholes that give meaning to parts, and we tend to observeseparate pieces of information as integrate wholes (integrate separate stimuli into meaningfulpatterns). Learning is not only responsive and mechanical, but can be active and purposeful -especially when trying to solve a problem, which is accomplished by sudden flashes of insight.V PsychoanalysisA Founders: Sigmund FreudB Summary: people are driven by deeply hidden impulses, unconscious processes (especially prim-itive sexual and aggressive impulses) are more influential than conscious thought in determininghuman behavior. Since impulses and desire to be good are in conflict, the underlying forces of personality are psychodynamic. Did research by interviewing patients (psychoanalysis) ratherthan in a lab.3

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