Automobile manufacturers have clearly committed themselves to supply the market with eversafer and more environment friendly products and are continuously investing huge R&Dresources in further product improvements and in developing radically new propulsion systems.The results clearly show that most road traffic related environmental concerns are in theprocess of being solved with all studies indicating air quality improvements on their way.For example:
The electric car
An electric car is a type of alternative fuel car that utilizes electric motors and motor controllersinstead of an internal combustion engine. The electric power is usually derived from batterypacks in the vehicles. In general terms, an electric car is a re-chargeable battery poweredvehicle. The electric car was among the oldest automobile systems upon which the dieselengine and petrol engines were developed. Somewhere down the line, electric cars lost theirappeal to faster, meaner, stronger and bigger fuel powered cars. However, today’s scenario of high oil prices and better environmental protection has brought electric cars back in vogue.E.g.: REVA
Vehicles using both electric motors and other types of engine are known as
(HEV) and are not considered pure electric vehicles (EV) because they operate in acharge-sustaining mode. Hybrid vehicles with batteries that can be charged externally todisplace are called plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). Honda has come up with hybridversions of their CIVIC and ACCORD models.
Hybrid vehicles are the best bet to get the most out of each tank of fuel during city driving.Current HEVs reduce petroleum consumption under certain circumstances, compared tootherwise similar conventional vehicles, primarily by using three mechanisms:1.
Reducing wasted energy during idle/low output, generally by turning the internalcombustion engine (ICE) off.2.
Recapturing waste energy.3.
Reducing the size and power of the ICE, and hence inefficiencies from under-utilization,by using the added power from the electric motor to compensate for the loss in peakpower output from the smaller ICE.Any combination of these three primary hybrid advantages may be used in different vehicles torealize different fuel usage, power, emissions, and weight and cost profiles. The combustionengine in a hybrid vehicle can be smaller, lighter, and more efficient than the one in a