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5_Superelevation & Transition Curves

5_Superelevation & Transition Curves

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Published by Defrim Kabashi

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Defrim Kabashi on Mar 12, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi26.07.20121
Chapter 3:Horizontal Alignment Superelevation Application Transition Curves 
In the actual design of a horizontal curve, the engineermust select appropriate values of eand
The value selected for superelevation, e, is criticalbecause high rates of superelevationcan cause
vehicle steering problems on the horizontal curve, and
in cold climates, ice on the roadway can reduce f 
such that vehicles traveling at less than the designspeed on an excessively superelevatedcurve couldslide inward off the curve due to gravitational forces.
AASHTO provides general guidelines for the selection of eandfsfor horizontal curve design, as shown in Table3.5.
The values presented in this table are grouped by fivevalues of maximum e. The selection of any one of thesefive maximum e values is dependent on the type of road(for example, higher maximum e's are permitted onfreeways compared with arterials and local roads) andlocal design practice. Limiting values offsare simply afunction of design speed. Table 3.5 also presentscalculated radii (given V, e, andfs) by applying Eq. 3.34.
İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi26.07.20122
Transition Design Controls
The design of transition sections includes considerationof transitions in the roadway crossslope and possibletransition curves incorporated in the horizontalalignment.
The formerconsideration is referred to as superelevationtransitionand
The latter is referred to as alignmenttransition.
Where both transition components are used, they occurtogether over a commonsection of roadway at thebeginning and end of the mainline circular curves.
from AASHTO’s
 A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2001
Transition Design Controls
The superelevationtransition section consists of thesuperelevationrunoffand tangent runoutsections.
The superelevationrunoff section consists of the length of roadway needed toaccomplish a change in outside-lanecross slope from zero (flat) to full superelevation, or viceversa.
The tangent runoutsection consists of the length of roadway needed to accomplish achange in outside-lanecross slope from the normal cross slope rate to zero(flat), or vice versa.
from AASHTO’s
 A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2001
Transition Design Controls
These two elements are applicable to superelevationonboth simple circular curvesand spiral transition curves,but the manner ofapplication is somewhat different foreach.
General criteria for application of runoff andterminologyfor both types of curves areshown in Figure.
from AASHTO’s
 A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2001
İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi26.07.20123
Superelevation Transition
from the 2001 Caltrans
Highway Design Manual 
Transition Design Controls
For reasons of safety and comfort, the pavementrotation in the superelevationtransition sectionshouldbe effected over a length that is sufficient to make suchrotation imperceptible to drivers.To be pleasing inappearance, the pavement edges should not appeardistorted to the driver.
In the alignment transition section, a spiral or compoundtransition curve may be used tointroduce the maincircular curve in a natural manner (i.e., one that isconsistent with the driver’ssteered path).
from AASHTO’s
 A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2001
Transition Design Controls
Such transition curvature consists of one or more curvesaligned and located toprovide a gradual change inalignment radius.
As a result, an alignment transition introduces thelateralaccelerationassociated with the curve in a gentlemanner.
While such a gradual change inpath and lateralacceleration is appealing, there is no definitive evidencethat transition curves areessential to the safe operationof the roadwayand,
As a result, they are not used by many agencies.
from AASHTO’s
 A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2001

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